Chapter Two Notes - Sources of Information
Chapter Two Notes - Sources of Information PSYC 2300
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2300 at Ohio State University taught by Seth Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
The Ohio State University Psychology 2300 Research Methods in Psychology Chapter Two Notes Sources of Information Research vs Experience a Compared to what b A reasonable comparison group is needed c Experience is confounded gt Something you observed may have a hidden or unsuspected cause Controlled research is better amp more likely to be accurate than experience Experience Doesn t Have a Comparison Group Case Example Dr Rush believed bloodletting was an effective way of treating illness But he never compared the bleeding cure to a quotno treatmentquot group gt This belief can lead to a dubious moral imperative 39if bloodletting works I should use it with my most severely ill patients gt But with this logic Dr Rush gave himself a handy rationalization when a patient dies Questions What data would you need in order to support the claim that bloodletting saved lives What data would you need to challenge this claim Experience Has Confounds When we evaluate our own experiences we are not able to control for multiple co occurring effects on our moodsbehaviors Example How to Reduce Anger Venting Catharsis Exercise Distraction Research Compared to Experience Research includes a comparison group control for confounds amp strive to evaluate info without bias gt Results however are probabilistic 0 An experiential counterexample doesn t disprove the research Thinking the Easy Way Cognitive Bias gt Falling for a good story accepting a conclusion just bc it makes sense or ts a familiar narrative l Bottling up anger letting off steam gt As with a pimple or a boiling kettle of water it might be better to release the pressure express anger amp negative feelings I Freud amp Catharsis gt It was too harmful to repress feelings I Stomach Ulcers gt were once thought to be caused by stress and excess stomach acid 0 Dr s treated the ulcers w antacid medications amp advised patients to avoid acidic food such as hot sauce and carbonated drinks 0 Made sense right Ulcers feel quothotquot amp they look like burns They appear to get worse under stress therefore it seems sensible to treat them with calming methods gt Relying on Availability Availability Heuristic Relying on what comes to mind most easily I Mentally available examples guide our thinking bc they come to mind more easily I Example Death from re or death from falling 0 Fire is more vivid amp more likely to be mentioned in the news gt PresentPresent Bias Focusing more on positive instances more than the negative ones I Failing to think about other data I A focus on the cell in which a treatment amp the desired outcome were both present while not properly considering the other cells Thinking About What We Want to Think About Motivational Bias gt CherryPicking Evidence gt seeking amp accepting only the evidence that supports what we already believe gt Biased Questioning gt asking s more likely to give the desired outcome l Leads to con rmatory hypothesis testing gt Biased Blind Spot amp Overcon dence gt even if we recognize bias in others we may have a harder time seeing it in ourselves I quotPart of learning to be a scientist is learning not to use feelings of con dence as evidence for the truth of our beliefsquot p 35 l Overcon dence is part of human condition but being con dent is not the same as being correct Intuition Thinking Compared to Scienti c Reasoning bc of these cognitive amp motivational bias we may notice or seek out info that con rms what we already suspect This may lead us to an incorrect conclusion A systematic collection of relevant data completed w comparison groups can mitigate those bias and lead us to answers that are more likely to be correct Authorities as a Source of Knowledge Relying on authorities for information is a necessary part of our lives it speeds life along directly verifying everything you use would take forever But recognize that authorities are just people too gt They may have more knowledge amp power but they can succumb to the same bias amp tendencies just like everyone else Authorities beliefs might be based on research intuition personal experiences another authority Again evidence that is based on empirical research is much more likely to yield accurate information 0 Look for references to reputable sources such as peer reviewed journals The types of research information written for a scienti c audience a Empirical journal Articles gt report original methods results in detail gt Sections 0 Abstract 0 Introduction 0 Method 0 Results 0 Discussion 0 References b Review Journal Articles gt summarize a collection or pattern of results from the literature gt metaanalysis c Edited Books gt invited authors overview of previous research d Full Length Books Guiding Questions 1 What is the argument 2 What is the evidence Finding Research in Other Places a Trade books by psychologists gt don t judge the book by it s cover Judge it by its references instead b Science Writing in Journalism c Wiki s gt Potentially useful amp may have helpful references d Popular Press gt Useful for nding an interesting study read the original peer reviewed article End