Chapter One Notes
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chemistry Chapter one notes Chemistry The study of matter what it consists of what its properties are and how it changes 0 Being able to have cake and watch how the ingredients change Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space 0 Anything that is physically real 0 Some things are easy to define as matter such as a book pen or notebook 0 Other things are not as easy to define as matter such as heat air or vapors Science The process by which we learn about the natural universe by observing testing and then generating a model that explains a observation 0 There are many different branches of science 0 Chemistry The study of matter 0 Biology The study of living things 0 Geology The study of rocks and the earth 0 Mathematics The language of science Alchemy 0 As our understanding of the universe has changed so has the way we think of science 0 Before chemistry the study of matter was called alchemy 0 Alchemy was primarily practiced in china Scientific method An organized procedure for learning answers to questions 0 Propose a hypothesis 1 0 Test the hypothesis 0 Refine tllhypothesis The Classification of Matter Physical Properties Characteristics that describe matter 0 Size Shape Color and Mass Chemical Properties Characteristics that describe how matter changes its chemical structure or composition 0 An example is ammability because burning changes the chemical composition of material Substance Any sample of matter that has the same physical and chemical properties throughout the sample 0 There are two types of substances 0 Elements 0 Compounds Element A substance that cannot be broken down into chemically smaller components 0 Aluminum soda cans Compound A substance that can be broken down into chemically smaller components 0 Water Atom The smallest part of an element that maintains the identity if that element Molecule The smallest part of a compound that maintains the identity of that compound Macroscopic A View of the universe in which one is working with large numbers of atoms or molecules at a time Microscopic A View of the universe in which one is working with a few atoms or molecules at a time Mixture A sample composed of two or more substances Heterogeneous mixtures A mixture that is a combination of two or more substances 0 When two substances are mixed together but you can still tell they are different substances Homogeneous mixture A mixture that acts as a single substance so that it is not obVious that two or more substances are present 0 Sugar dissolVing into water and salt water Phrases A certain form of matter that includes a specific set of physical properties Phrase change A physical process in which a substance goes from one phase to another Measurements Quantity an amount of something Number how many or how much of something in quantity Unit The scale of measurement for a quantity Scientific Notation Scientific Notation A system for expressing very large or very small numbers in a compact manner Power The exponent in a number expressed in scientific notation Significant Figures All the digits of a measured quantity known with certainty and the first uncertain estimated digit Rounding The process of assessing the final significant figure of a quantity to determine if it should be kept of moved higher The international system of units Base Basic Unit A fundamental unit of SI Derived unit Combinations of the SI base units Volume The amount of space that a given substance occupies Energy The ability to perform work Joule The S1 unit of energy Density The mass of an object divided by its volume 0 Density MassVolume Conversion factor A fraction that has equivalent quantities in the numerator and the denominator but expressed in different units Exact number A number that is defined or counted Chapter One Examples 1 Which field of study are branches of science Explain 0 Sculpture 0 Sculpture is not considered a science because it is not a study of some aspect of the natural universe 0 Astronomy 0 Astronomy is the study of stars and planets which are part of the natural universe Astronomy is therefore a field of science 2 How would a chemist categorize each example of matter 0 Saltwater 0 Saltwater acts as if it were a single substance even though it contains two substances salt and water This is a homogeneous mixture or a solution 0 Soil 0 Soil is composed of small pieces of a variety of materials so this is a heterogeneous mixture 0 Water 0 Water is a substance more specifically Because water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen it is a compound 0 Oxygen 0 Oxygen is a substance an element 3 Identify the number and the unit in each quantity 0 One dozen eggs 0 The number is one and the unit is dozen eggs 0 254 centimeters 0 The number is 254 the unit is centimeters 0 A box of pencils 0 The number one is implied and the unit is box and pencils 0 88 meters per second 0 The number is 88 the unit is meters and seconds 4 Express each number in scientific notation 0 67000000000 0 67 x 10quot10 0 1689 0 1689 x 10quot3 o 126 0 126 x 10quot1 5 Express each number in standard notation 0 527 X 10quot4 0 52700 0 10008 X 10quot6 0 1000800 6 Express each number in scientific notation 0 0000006567 0 6597 x 10quot 6 0 00004004 0 4004 x 10quot 4 0 0000000000000123 0123 x10quot 13 7 Express each number in standard notation 0 622 x 10quot 2 0 00622 0 99 x 10quot 9 0 00000000099 8 How many significant figures does each number have 0 6798000 04 0 6000798 07 0 600079800 0 9 0 00006798 04 9 Write the answer for each expression using scientific notation With the appropriate number of significant figures 0 23096 x 90300 0 20856 x 10quot3 5 significant figures 0 125 x 9000 0 113 x 10quot3 3 significant figures 0 102761036306 0 20 x 10quot3 two significant figures 10 Give the abbreViation for each unit and define the abbreViation in terms of the base unit 0 Kiloliter 0 The abbreViation for kiloliter is kL Because kilo means 1000x 1kL1000L 0 Microsecond 0 Ms 11000000th of a unit 11 12 13 14 0 Decimeter 0 Dm110th 01m 0 Nanogram 0 Ng 0000000001g What is the density of a section of bone if 253 cmquot3 sample has the mass of 278g 0 Density massvolume 278g 253 cmquot3 110gcmquot3 The average volume of blood in an adult male is 47L 0 What is the volume in milliliters 0 1L1000mL X 47L 4700mL 0 A hummingbird can ap its wings once in 18 ms How many seconds are in 18 ms 0 18ms X 1s1000ms 0018s A mercury thermometer for measuring a patient s temperature contains 0750g of mercury What is the volume of this mass of mercury 0 0750g X 1mL136g 0055147mL 00551mL Convert 582 ms to megaseconds in one multistep calculation 0 582ms X 1s1000ms X 1ms1000000 00000000582ms 582 X 10quot 8 ms Chapter one Exercises Which fields of study are branches of science 0 Politics 0 Physiology yes Geophysics yes 0 Agriculture Define science and chemistry Name the steps of the scientific method 0 Science the process by which we learn about the natural universe by observing testing and then generating models that eXplain the observations 0 Chemistry the study of matter 0 The steps of the scientific method are propose a hypothesis test the hypothesis and refine the hypothesis if necessary Based on what you know which fields are branches of science 0 Meteorology The study of the weather yes 0 Astrophysics The study of the physics of planets and stars yes 0 Economics The study of money and monetary systems 0 Astrology The prediction of human events based on planetary and star position 0 Political Science The study of politics Based on what you know which fields are branches of science 0 History The study of past events 10 ll 12 13 14 15 0 Ornithology The study of birds 0 Paleontology The study of fossils yes 0 Zoology The study of animals yes 0 Phrenology Using the shape of the head to determine personal characteristics Which of the following are examples of matter 0 A babyyes 0 An idea 0 The empire state buildingyes 0 An emotion 0 The air yes 0 Alpha centauri the closet known star excluding the sun to our solar system y s Which of the following are examples of matter 0 Your textbook yes 0 Brain cells yes 0 Love 0 A can of soda yes 0 Breakfast cereal yes Suggest a name for the science that studies physics of living organisms 0 Biophysics Suggest a name for the science that studies the physics of the earth and rocks 0 Geophysics Engineering is the practical application of scientific principles and discoveries to develop things that make our lives easier Is medicine science an engineering Explain your answer 0 Medicine is probably closer to a field of engineering than a field of science Based on the definition of engineering would build a bridge over a river or road be considered science or engineering 0 Engineering When someone says I have a theory that excess salt causes high blood pressure Does that person really have a theory If it is not a theory what is it 0 In scientific terms this person has a hypothesis When a person says I have a hypothesis that excess calcium in the diet causes kidney stones What does his person need to do to determine if the hypothesis is correct 0 Test the hypothesis if the hypothesis proves incorrect then refine it and try again Some people argue that many scientists accept many scientific principles on faith using what you know about the scientific method how might you argue against that assertion 0 Science is based on reproducible facts not blind belief Most students take multiple English classes in school Does the study of English use the scientific method 0 Yes when you study anything you are using the scientific method How would a chemist categorize each example of matter 0 Coffee made up of more than one substance but acts as one This is a homogeneous mixture 0 Hydrogen this is an element and it is diatomic 0 An egg This is one substance so this is a heterogeneous mixture 16 Explain the differences between the physical properties and the chemical properties of matter 0 Physical properties describe the existence of matter and chemical properties describe how substances change into other substances 17 What is the difference between a heterogeneous mixture and a homogeneous mixture Give an example of each 0 A heterogeneous mixture is obviously a mixture such as dirt a homogeneous mixture behaves like a single substance such as saltwater 18 Give at least two examples of a phase change and state the phases involved in each 0 Solid to liquid Melting 0 Liquid to gas Boiling 19 Does each statement refer to a chemical property or physical property 0 Balsa A very light weight wood 0 Physical property 0 If held in a ame magnesium metal burns in air 0 Chemical property 0 Mercury has a density of 136 gmL 0 Physical property 0 Human blood is red 0 Physical property 20 Does each statement refer to a chemical property or a physical property 0 The elements chlorine and sodium can combine to make table salt 0 Chemical property 0 The metal tungsten does not melt until its temperature exceeds 3000 degrees Celsius 0 Physical property 0 The ingestion of ethyl alcohol can lead to disorientation and confusion 0 Chemical property 0 The boiling point of isopropyl alcohol which is used to sterilize cuts and scrapes is lower than the boiling point of water 0 Chemical property 21 Define element How does it differ from a compound 0 An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into chemically simpler components A compound can be broken down into chemically simpler components 22 Define compound How does it differ from an element 0 A compound is a group of substances that can be chemically broken down into smaller components while an element cannot be 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Give two examples of a heterogeneous mixture 0 Salt and paper bowl of cereal Give two examples of a homogeneous mixture 0 Water sulfate Identify each substance as an element compound heterogeneous mixture or solution 0 Sugar 0 Compound 0 Hydrogen 0 Element 0 Dirt 0 Heterogeneous mixture Identify each substance as an element compound heterogeneous mixture or solution 0 Air 0 Solution 0 Ringersacetate 0 Solution 0 Tartaric acid 0 Compound Identify each substance as an element compound heterogeneous mixture or solution 0 Equal portions of salt and sand in a bearer shaken up 0 Heterogeneous mixture 0 Combination of beeswax dissolved into liquid hexane 0 Solution 0 Hydrogen Peroxide 0 Heterogeneous mixture What word describes each type of change 0 Liquid to solid 0 freezing 0 Gas to liquid 0 condensation 0 Gas to solid 0 deposition What word describes each type of change 0 Solid to liquid 0 melting 0 Liquid to gas 0 boiling 0 Solid to gas 0 Sublimation Identify the numbers and units on each quantity 0 99 bottles of soda 0 99 bottles soda 0 60 miles per hour 0 60 miles hour 0 32 uid ounces 0 32 ounces 0 986 degrees Fahrenheit 0 986 Fahrenheit 31 What are the two necessary parts of a quantity 0 Number and unit 32 Way are both parts of quantity important when describing it 0 The number states how much and the unit states of what 33 Why are measurements an important part of any branch of science such as chemistry 0 It makes a clear way to replicate results and test for accuracy 34 You ask a classmate how much homework your chemistry professor assigned Your classmate answers twenty Is that a proper answer 0 No this could mean that it is problem twenty or twenty problems This is a very unreliable answer 35 Identify the number and unit 0 5 grandchildren 0 5 grandchildren 16 candles 0 16 candles 0 4 score and 7 years 0 47 score and years 0 40 days and 40 nights 0 40 40 days and nights 0 1201 grams 0 1201 grams 0 98 meters per second squared 0 98 meter second squared 0 55 miles per hour 0 55 miles hour 0 986 degrees Fahrenheit 0 986 Fahrenheit 36 Express each number in scientific notation 0 1492 0 1492 x 10quot3 0 102000000 0 102 x 10quot9 0 101325 0 101325 X10quot5 37 Express each number in standard notation 0 698 X 10quot8 0 698000000 0 1005 X 10quot2 0 1005 38 Express each number in scientific notation 0 0000355 0 355 X 10quot 4 0 0314159 0 314159 X 10quot 1 39 Express each number in standard notation 0 998 X 10quot 5 0 00000998 0 5109 X 10quot 8 0 000000005109
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