Week 6 Lecture Notes
Week 6 Lecture Notes ATY 253-01
Popular in Intro to Biological Anthrpolgy
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Environmental Science
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Hall on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ATY 253-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Charles P. Egeland in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological Anthrpolgy in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
Reviews for Week 6 Lecture Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/28/15
92215 Lecture Notes Amber Hall 0 Speciation and Phylogenies o change in gene frequencies over a few generations 0 longterm gene changes resulting in new species 0 What is a species 0 Typological paradigm All organisms belong to one and only one type in perpetuity Groups of organisms similar to each other distinct from others naturally interbreeding group that is reproductively isolated from other groups Interbreeding leads to gene flow Reproductive isolation Reproductive isolating mechanisms I Geographic isolation I Courtship behavior I Sterility I Activity patterns I nviability of zygote Naturallyinterbreeding 0 Still 2 problems here Very different organisms that still interbreed naturally Fossils 0 Species concepts and conservation 1 species of 3000 or 3 of 1000 0 Creating new species 0 creation of new species Often too slow and too fast to observe But we ve seen it happen African chimps 16 mya million years ago all interbreed freely Gelada baboons and Hamadryas baboons 5 mya interbred with fertile offspring Macaques and baboons 10 mya interbreed with sterile offspring o geographic separation followed by genetic divergence o Speciation o quotway of living Rate of speciation depends on the number of open niches o an organism diversifies to fill many available niches 0 Pattern and process in evolution Evolution is MOSAIC I Evolutionary rates are different for different traits 000 I Ex Stature vs brains vs teeth Evolutionary rates are VARIABLE I Sometimes slow sometimes fast 92415 Lecture Notes Amber Hall How can we tell who is related to whom Why are humans considered primates What makes a primate a primate Classification classification of living things Reflects the evolutionary history Taxonomies should reflect evolutionary relatedness Need to determine who is rated and how closely to whom tree showing ancestordescendent relationships We are basically upright naked apes Genus Tribe Subfamily Common ancestor Can make bigger classificationsgroups if you go farther back in time Establishing evolutionary relations Types of traits shared trait due to shared common ancestry shared traits evolves independently in two groups convergent evolution Falcon Ancestral bird Bat Ancestral mammal Pterodactyl Ancestral reptile Convergent evolution Musk Deer K9 teeth evolved because of sexual selection Lion K9 teeth evolved to eat meat occurs in the last common ancestor of a group of organisms distinct from that possessed by the last common ancestor of a group of organisms Ancestral vs Derived Humans five digits ancestral has not changed for like 250 years Horse One digit derived What traits should be used CLADISTICS Shared ancestral traits NOT USEFUL Unique derived trait NOT USEFUL Shared derived trait USEFUL Emphasizes only phylogeny Hairiness in primates Hominoids apes gibbons bonobos humans etc Mobile shoulderjoint and lack of tail Hominins humans ancestors Bipedalism Step 1 choose a taxa Sharks and relatives Rayfinned fishes Amphibians Primates Rodents and rabbits Crocs and Relatives Dinosaurs and Birds Step 2 choose traits Yes or no questions Step 3 determine polarity of traits Define an quotoutgroupquot Represent the ancestral condition Step 4 Group taxa by shared derived traits Make your tree Molecular phylogenies Alleles or base pairs as traits Molecular clock and mutation rates Meet the Primates Primates as Mammals 250 species Body hair Birth to live young ability to maintain constant body temperature Behavioral flexibility Why study primates We humans are primates Diseases Understanding human evolution 3 things about primates ARBOREAL adaptation treedwelling Dietary plasticity Lots of parental investment in offspring Body Plan Versatile and Flexible Skeleton Clavicle collarbone and scapular shoulder blade Opposable thumb Power and precision grips Post orbital opening