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Week 6 Lecture Notes

by: Amber Hall

Week 6 Lecture Notes BIO 111-03

Amber Hall
Principles of Biology I
Joseph C. Bundy

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These are my notes from Tuesday and Thursday's lectures. Hope they help you!
Principles of Biology I
Joseph C. Bundy
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Hall on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 111-03 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Joseph C. Bundy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Natural Sciences at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
92215 Lecture Notes Amber Hall 0 Lysosome 0 Hold digestive enzymes 0 Digest something the cell has eaten o Phagosome aka quotfood vacuole 0 Primary lysosome phagosome secondary lysosome o Peroxisomes 0 Holds hydrogen peroxide isolated from rest of the cell H202H20 202 o Catalase enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide H202 gt H20 12 02 o Vacuole storage compartment 0 Storage of toxins water flower pigments digestive enzymes 0 Plants have large vacuoles o Contractile vacuole o Helps get rid of excess water o Cytoskeleton Figure 410 cytocel Support Structure Moving parts of the cell around Composed of 000 Microfilaments 7nm Intermediate filaments 812nm Microtubule 25nm hollow o Flagella whiplike structure which helps a cell move 0 Cilia hairlike structure used for movement 0 9 2 arrangement 0 The Plasma Membrane 0 Singer Nicolson s Fluid Mosaic Model 1972 Parts put together but they move Selectively permeable Very thin 8nm thick Major components Phospholipid bilayer ch5 p84 can move lateral movement quot107 times per minute flip flop once a month Cholesterol I Membrane fluidity I Help prevent phospholipids to pack tightly to each other Proteins I Sometimes embedded or stuck on outer layer I Experiments of Frye and Edidin 1970 Functions of membrane proteins 1 Transport 2 Enzymatic activity speed up biochemical reactions 3 Signal transduction communicate with another cell 4 nterceuar joining proteins get together and lock cells together 5 Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix ECM Carbohydrates I Glycolipid Glycoprotein Proteoglycan o Traversing the Plasma Membrane Nonpolar hydrophobic molecules hydrocarbons 02 C02 Dissolve into phospholipid bilayer and cross it easy 0 O O 0 water molecules ions transport protein required polar molecules glucose other sugars carrier protein required aquaporins 0 Passive Transport Simple Diffusion O O O O O Diffusion high solute gt low solute Figure 42 10 micrometers 01mm 1 sec 1mm 100x1 100 sec time is 1000x 1m 3 years Plasma Membrane fluid mosaic model1972 o Are selectively permeable 0 Very thin 8nm thick Components Phospholipid bilayer page 84 They can move Lateral movement 107 times per minute Flip flop once a month Cholesterol Helps prevent phospholipids to pack tightly to each other Proteins Are sometimes embedded or stuck on outer layer Experiments of Frye amp Edidin found that proteins have move Functions Transport massage way for things to cross Enzymatic activity speed up biochemical reactions in cells Signal transduction communicate by chemical message receiving cell responds by what the message wants it to do CellCell recognition cells can tell what type of cells they are by proteins short term Intercellularjoining proteins get together and lock cells together Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix filaments attach to cytoskeleton Carbohydrates Glycolipid Glycoprotein Proteoglycan 0 Figure 51 Traversing the Plasma Membrane Nonpolar hydrophobic molecules hydrocarbons 02C02 dissolve into phospholipid bilayer and cross it eas Ions transport protein required Polar molecules glucose other sugars carrier protein required Water molecules aguaporins Passive transports simple diffusion Diffusion high solute to low solute 10 micrometers 001mm 01 sec 1 mm100x 100 sec time is 1000x 10 mm 104 sec 3 hrs 1 m 3 years Passive transport osmosis movement of high water molecules to low water molecules The two solutions are separated in the middle Hypotonic less solute solution Solution on one side ofthe membrane has a lower solute concentration than on the other side making it hypotonic Isotonic same concentration of solute solution Hypertonic solution higher solute Animal Cell in a hypotonic solution the water molecules move inside the cell I Lysed when a cell erupts When a cell takes on too much water molecules Plant Cell in a hypotonic solution 39 The cell takes on water molecules but doesn39t erupt it only expands Flaccid Hypertonic solution high concentration to low concentration Plasmolyzed when a cell shrinks Passive transport facilitated diffusion Facilitated diffusion diffusion w helpers High solute to low solute With channel proteins Ion channels Carrier proteins Aquaponns 39 A stimulus molecule binds to a Channel protein can diffuse across the membrane 39 Ions must be in high to low concentration to pass 39 Carrier protein Shape change is what makes carrier proteins different from channel proteins Very specific Glucose carrier won t recognize fructose the isomer of glucose quotsaturatedquot when all carriers are occupied I Aquaporins Increases membrane permeability to water Help facilitate the movement of water molecules facilitated osmosis Active transport Low solute to high solute Electrogenic pump eg the NaK pump I Sodium ions low inside the cell so they move outward with ATP changing shape of the protein Losing 3 Na for every 2 K gained to net loss of 1 charge to membrane potential 50 to 200 mV Proton pump is to move H from low concentration to high concentration I When ions moved out of the cell they have a slight negative charge I The proton pump set up the energy required to make the sucrose H cotransporter work Cotransporter move 2 things at once Bulk Transport Phagocytosis cells eating discovered in ameba an amoeba engulfing a bacterium Pinocytosis cell drinking vesicles forming arrows in a cell lining a small blood vessel Receptor mediated endocytosis LDL taken into cells Exocytosis sending things out Junctions between cells where plasma membranes meet 3 common junctions Tight junction plasma membrane fused together by proteins leaving no space between the cells like in the digestive tract I Ex skin cells Desmosome proteins that cross between plasma membrane keratin holds them together I Muscle cells when you pull a muscle its when the cells separate Gap junction quotcommunicating junctionsquot ions passing from one cell to another I Heart tissue I In a plant its plasmodesmata cytoplasmic connections


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