Behavioral Psychology PSYCH 100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Alvarez on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 100 at Clark College taught by Tess Yevka in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at Clark College.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
PSYCH 100 BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE OVERVIEW An approach to psychology that focuses on observable behaviors that people learn from their environment Key Points Emerged in the early 20th century 0 The primary tenet of behaviorism is that psychology should concern itself with the observable behavior of people and animals not with unobservable events that take place in their minds 0 Ivan Pavlov is widely known for describing the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning in his experiments with dogs Edward Lee Thorndike was a psychologist whose work on animal behavior and the learning process led him to discover what he termed the law of effect John B Watson was a psychologist best known for his classical conditioning experiment using Little Albert B F Skinner coined the term operant conditioning which describes the strengthening or attenuation of a voluntary response based on association with positive or negative consequences NOTES gt Behaviorism rejects the existence of underlying conflicts and an unconscious focuses on observable overt behaviors that are learned from the environment gt In the Rather it gt second half of the 20th century behaviorism was largely eclipsed as a result of the cognitive revolution gt In the 18903 Pavlov noticed that dogs tended to salivate before food was actually delivered to their mouths and set out to investigate what caused this to happen He carried out a long series of experiments in which he manipulated the stimuli occurring before the presentation of food thereby establishing the basic laws of quotconditional reflexquot or the reflex response which only occurred quotconditionallyquot based on previous learned experiences gt Little Albert experiment consisted of John B Watson presenting a white rat to the 9 monthold boy and observed that he was not afraid of it Second he presented him with a white rat and then clanged an iron rod Albert responded by crying He began to present the white rat by itself and the boy showed fear indicating that an association had been formed between the loud noise and the white rat Later in an attempt to see if the fear transferred to other objects Watson presented Albert with a rabbit a dog and a fur coat and Albert cried at the sight of all of them gt This study demonstrated how emotions could become conditioned responses gt Operant conditioning o The strengthening of a response occurs through reinforcement either through positive reinforcement which is the introduction of a positive consequence such as food pleasurable activities or attention from others or through negative reinforcement which is the removal of a negative consequence such as pain or a loud noise 0 The attenuation or discontinuation of a response occurs through punishment either through positive punishment which is the introduction of a negative consequence such as pain or through negative punishment which is the removal of a positive consequence such as a toy gt Human behavior is shaped by trial and error through reinforcement and punishment without any reference to inner conflicts or perceptions Mental disorders represented maladaptive behaviors that were learned and that could be unlearned through behavior modification