Nucleic Acid Structure & Function
Nucleic Acid Structure & Function Biol 120-101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Scanlon on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 120-101 at Towson University taught by Lauren Kuta in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biological Sciences at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Nucleic Acid Structure 6 Function What is DNA 0 Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA oz Deoxyribose a sugar is the backbone of DNA 0 Store genetic information oz Found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells plantsampanimas oz Free oating in prokaryotic cells bacteria Structure of DNA oz Made up of two strands of nucleotides oz Nucleotide consists of sugar a phosphate amp a single nitrogenous base oz When multiple nucleotides combine it creates a DNA strand How Bases Pair 0 Four bases in DNA 0 Adenine o Guanine o Cytosine o Thymine o3 Adenine amp Thymine always pair together oz Guanine amp Cytosine always pair together 393 Held together the center of the DNA molecules with weak hydrogen bonds DNA Base Structure oz Adenine amp Guanine are larger amp called purine s o3 Thymine amp Cytosine are smaller amp called pyrimidine s Amount of DNA differs 393 Different species have different amounts of DNA but much of the basic code is shared among living things oz How DNA is read amp used by the body amp timing sequencing seem to be the main cause of life s diversity Chromosomes oz DNA strands wound up tightly into X shaped structures 393 Form during mitosis amp meiosis to allow for easy division of the cell amp its genetic materials Why Chromosomes oz DNA can t be read if condensed into a chromosome but it can be moved 0 This ensures correct division during mitosis amp meiosis oz DNA must be in lose form amp unwound in order to be read amp replicated DNA replication 393 Most important part of cell cycle 393 Allows each cell to have identical copies of DNA 393 DNA must unwind before replication thus exposing the central bases to RNA How DNA Replicates 393 Step 1 0 An enzyme helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the DNA bases together DNA strands separate 393 Step 2 0 Each strand begins to replicate to the center Replication follows base pairing rules AampT GampC oz Step 3 0 Once two full strands have been created each new amp complete DNA molecule zips back into its double helix shape via the enzyme DNA polymerase Mutations oz Mistakes in DNA code occurs during replication oz Types 0 Deletion which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is missing Deletion is the loss of genetic material 0 Inversion chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end An inversion occurs when a single chromosome undergoes breakage and rearrangement within itself 0 Duplicaition is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution What is RNA oz Ribonucleic Acid 393 Smaller than DNA with 1 strand oz Sugar ribose oz RNA can move in amp out of nucleus due to small size 393 RNA the base Thymine is replaced with Uracil T replaced with U Types of RNA 0 Messenger RNA mRNA 0 Moves between the ribosomes amp nucleus carrying DNA s genetic instructions for building proteins 393 Transfer RNA tRNA 0 Matches up to condons on mRNA amp brings in the appropriate amino acids 0 Ribosomal RNA rRNA o Fuses the adjacent amino acids together the ribosome to begin to build a protein
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