Ch 3 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000
Ch 3 Outline and Lecture Notes - Psych 1000 Psych 1000
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisol Getchell on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at Tulane University taught by Rollins, Bethany in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
CH 3 CONSCIOUSNESS What is consciousness Mental processing without awareness brain is still processing information without our awareness a Priming i when prior exposure to a stimulus has an unconscious in uence our subsequent behavior ii activation of associations when networks are activated in uences you to respond in certain ways brings certain concepts to the forefront of your mind you re more likely to respond with related information b Subliminal stimuli also a form of mental processing that occurs without awareness beneath the threshold of conscious awareness stimuli that s too brief or faint to be consciously detected i effect on behavior ii subliminal persuasion effects are generally short lived and minor 1 effectiveness Attention a A concentration or focusing of mental activity b Selective attention purposely focusing on one thing at a time while ignoring everything else i Cocktail party effect our ability to pay attention to one conversation when there are multiple conversations going on around us you can be a part of your conversation while ignoring the others if you hear your name in one of the other conversation it immediately grabs your attention maybe you subconsciously monitor these other conversations even though you re actively focused on one c Divided attention when we try to pay attention to two or more things at once hard attention is a limited resource the more things you try to do at the same time the less accurate it will be i limitations d Attention failures i Change blindness failure to detect large changes occurring in a large scene miss large changes in our visual eld Sleep and Dreaming a What is sleep i Naturally occurring periodic suspension of consciousness ii Not much is known about sleep research is b Circadian rhythm Cycle of behavior and physiology that repeats approximately every 24 hours wide spread pattern most animals show some circadian rhythm Suprachiasmatic Nucleus SCN of hypothalamus regulates motivated behaviors and behaviors that maintain the body receives information about light levels in the environment helps keep the body on track Individual variations different individuals of a species have varying patterns 1 Genetics 2 Age younger people are more likely to be night owls as you age more likely to be a morning person Circadian low points 1 Drop in performance at work during these times there s an increase in accidents during these times 2 14am and 14pm c Stages of sleep Electroencephalogram EEG measures activity in the brain through electrodes on the scalp measuring the synchronous ring of millionsthousands neurons 1 Synchronous activity of neurons produces waves of activity 2 Referred to as quotbrain wavesquot Stages each stage has a distinctive pattern frequency gets lower amplitude gets higher as you move from 19293 increase in amplitude decrease in frequency brain activity gets more synchronousmore neurons ring at the same time 1 NREM 1 lightest stage of sleep right when you fall asleep individuals easily awakened can experience feeling of falling or other hallucinations 2 NREM 2 deeper than NREM 1 most of night sleep is spent in NREM 2 more than any other stage 3 NREM 3 deepest stage of sleep heart rate and blood pressure and body temperature etc are very low a Slowwave sleep low frequency b Encompasses the formerly known stages 3 amp 4 c When you re most likely to sleep walktalk or wet the bed d After NREM 3 you move back to 2 go back down the ladder 4 REM most dreaming storylike dreams occurs during REM Progression through stages you go back from 3 9 2 before going to REM NREM2 and REM EEG patterns are more similar than REM and NREM3 1 One complete sleep cycle is NREM 1 NREM 2 NREM 3 NREM 2 REM iv Rapid Eye Movement REM quotparadoxical sleepquot from the outside you look like you re in a deep sleep but brain and body are internally very active REM is most associated with storylike dreaming dreaming in other stages is more like eeting images 1 2 3 4 5 Brain activity Physiology heart rateblood pressure etc is similar to when you re awake Paralysis muscles are paralyzed during this state good because you would act out your dreams Animals and REM it is believed animals dream during REM You most likely always dream during REM even if you don t remember it v A night s sleep 1 2 Changes spent in stages over the night a Most of the NREM3 happens in the rst half of the night b Periods of time spent in REM increases as the night prooresses the majority of REM sleep is in the second half of the night c Sleep is more fragmented in older adults Variations in amount needed a Individual variation 9 some people need more sleep than others b Genetically in uenced d Functions of sleep i Why do we sleep 1 2 3 4 ii Sleep 1 Improves mood memory concentration immune funcUon No one really knows why but all things do it birds reptiles mammals etc Appears that we need sleep in order to function normally Major impact on mood during the day dep vann Symptoms of going without sleep fatigue irritability inattention difficulties learningremember concentrate hallucinations decrease in inhibition lethargic silliness desire to sleep difficulties thinking rationally more prone to mistakes Disrupts immune system hunger and body fat hormones a Suppresses immune system function making you more prone to getting sick b Sleep deprivation can make wounds heal slower c Can make us more likely to gain weight 3 Microsleeps period of sleep that lasts for seconds or fractions of a second a Eyes may remain open b Lights are on but no one s home c If you go 24 hrs without sleep you are as impaired as someone over the legal limit of intoxication for driving 4 Don t adapt to less functioning impaired a May feel that you get used to a sleep deprived schedule b But functioning will always probably be impaired by sleep deprivation HL Theodes 1 Restorative Function gives the body and brain a e Dreams chance to restock repair reorganize replenish supplies and make repairs a Evidence increase in protein synthesis during sleep b Sleep improves athletic performance endurance muscle memory c Removal of waste products from the brain Learning and memory you will typically remember new information better after sleep better able to solve problems after sleep i Perceptual experiences that our minds create during REM sleep ii Dream content hard to make generalizations about dreams 1 2 Often re ect waking thoughts concerns experiences often include elements of our waking lives resemble what we do and think about Compensatory Effects make up for what we re lacking during the day 3 You can still process information about your surroundings sensory stimuli can be incorporated into a dream iii Functions Why do we dream No one really knows 1 Importance REM rebound Tendancy for individuals deprived of REM to go more quickly into REM and spend more time in REM when they are next able to sleep normally a Suggests brain tries to make up for REM or in some cases NREM3 that s lost b Occurs in almost all animals 2 Learning memory and emotional processing a Patterns of brain activity that are observed when learning a new task have been found to repeat during REM sleep Suggests memories are consolidated and further embedded in the brain Different stages in sleep are more important for different parts of memory Helps us process and store memories for unusual or anxiety provoking events important for emotional health dream more after stressful experiences iv Causes of dreams 1 Activationsynthesis hypothesis a Dream synthesized from random activation brain tries to make sense of random activation b When in REM sleep there are burst of activity arising from the brain stem these activate somewhat random memories concepts and emotions in our cortex brains try to make sense of these activations by weaving a story f Sleep disorders and parasomnias undesirable behaviorsexperiences related to sleep i Insomnia most common 1 Difficulty falling asleep andor staying asleep 2 What can help lowering the temp in the room or sleeping in a different location sleeplessness can be classically conditioned to your surroundings ii Narcolepsy 1 Sleepiness and sleep attacks spontaneously fall 2 3 asleep and fall into REM too fast not enough NREM3 Periodic overwhelming sleepiness Cataplexy sudden loss of muscle tone partial or complete a Often triggered by strong emotion surprised something really funny sexual arousal etc 4 Hypnogogic falling asleep and hypnopompic awakening hallucinations a Sleep paralysis VI vii b Waking dream experiencing paralysis that comes with REM sleep but the hallucinations are super imposed on your surroundings 5 Typically starts appearing in the teens 6 Thought to be an autoimmune disorder where there is a loss of orexinhypocretin 7 Animals can get narcolepsy too Sleeptalking sleeping person starts talking can occur in any stage of sleep although most likely in NREM3 more common in children genetic in uence tends to run in families more likely to happen in individuals that are sleep deprivedhave a fever Sleepwalking person gets up and does things walk or engage in simple repetitive behaviors occurs in NREM3 more common in children genetic in uence runs in families thought to be rapid cycling between stages and awake more likely in individuals that are sleep deprived Nightmares scary dreams that occur during REM Night terrors occur during NREM3 more common amongst children often occur shortly after falling asleep or within a few hours of falling asleep REM behavior disorder a person doesn t experience the paralysis that goes along with REM so they act out their dreams more common in men over 50 associated with Parkinson s also can occur in individuals taking or withdrawing from drugs Psychoactive drugs In uence brain function alter psychological processes in uence psychological processes by altering synaptic activity in the brain Psychopharmacology study of the effects of psychoactive drugs on behavior and mental processes Drugs affectinteract with neurotransmitters b C iii Terms i Agonist enhances facilitates or mimics the effects of that neurotransmitter in certain parts of the brain variety of mechanisms for a drug to act as an agonist Antagonists inhibits or blocks the effects of that neurotransmitter works against the neurotransmitter variety of mechanisms for a drug to act as an antagonist most drugs work with or against multiple neurotransmitters Addiction repetitive and compulsive use of a drug unable to control continue to use the drug regardless of the negative effectsaspects 1 Often has both physical and psychological components ii Tolerance need higher dosage of the drug to get the same effect as when you rst started taking it iii Withdrawal syndrome undesirable side effects of discontinued drug use unpleasant symptoms that occur when you stop using a drug iv Mechanism behind withdrawal and tolerance 1 Bodybrain initiates processes to counteract effects of drug to maintain homeostasis 2 When you regularly take drugs your body initiates processes to counteract the effects of the drug to maintain stabilityhomeostasis 3 Typically opposite the effects of the drug v Drug interaction 1 Some drugs amplify each others effects e Psychoactive drug useabuseaddiction i Highjacked brain during addiction become a drug seeking machine biological need that supersedes everything else ii Biological predisposition 1 Selfmedication 2 Rewardde ciency Individuals with fewer dopamine receptors are more prone to developing addictions so they don t experience as much reward so they must seek out what provides the missing pleasure iii Psychosocial factors 1 stress failure boredom money peers f Depressants i Relaxation drowsiness decreased anxiety slow down the nervous system depress activity in the NS ii Alcohol 1 Alters many different neurotransmitters 2 BAC 34 pass out BAC 45 death 3 Widespread effects on brain and behavior altersimpairs nearly every aspect of thinking a Depresses activity in the frontal lobes impaired judgment increased impulsivity less appreciation for potential consequences b Hippocampus impairs memory c Brain stem i Cerebellum impairs balance and motor coordination ii Reticular formation affects consciousness 4 iii Medulla affects heart rate and breathing Withdrawal a Can have deadly effects seizures autonomic NS is out of whack in intense users Benzodiazepines valium xanax librium etc U39lbUUNH 6 prescription drugs used to treat anxiety anxiolytics tranquilizers tend to produce drowsiness and relaxation GABA agonists GABA is an inhibitor benzodiazepines enhance the production of GABA addiction and withdrawal can also have deadly effects iv Opiates morphine heroin codeine vicodin oxycontin etc 3 4 1 endorphin agonists mimic endorphins 2 painkillers induce sleep produce relaxation and euphona highly addictive if used as directed by doctors usually don t get addicted unpleasant but not deadly withdrawal trouble sleeping a lot of pain depression 9 Stimulants 39 Increase activity in CNS speed things up Decrease appetite increase energy selfcon dence wakefulness Caffeine ingredient found in coffee tea chocolate worlds most popular drug 1 2 Nicotine 1 2 3 Adenosine antagonist Wa kefulness Acetylcholine agonist but it affects lots of other neurotransmitters like dopamine norepinephrine opioids etc 2 Mood boost memory pain 3 Addiction potential one of the most addicting substances Cocaine 1 Enhances norepinephrine NE dopamine DA serotonin 5HT etc Immediate euphoric rush feelings of con dence optimism wellbeing Can provoke heart attack or stroke even in small doses 4 Addiction potential highly addictive anything that gives you an immediate rush often quite habit forming Amphetamines methamphetamine Dexedrine Benzeddne vi 1 2 3 4 5 vii M WNH 4 h Hallucinog Agonist but in different ways enhances NE DA 5HT etc Compared with cocaine Result in feelings of alertness euphoria hyperactivity appetite suppression Addiction potential very addicting Last longer but not as intense effects MD A ecstasy Agonist of DA and 5HT serotonin Stimulant with some hallucinogenic effects Feelings of euphoria feelings of closeness with others hyperactivity possible brain damage may or may not cause permanent damage to serotonin neurons Originally used in therapies couples therapy ens Psychedelic hallucinogens 1 LSD psilocybin mushrooms mescaline peyote U39lgt ii 1 cactus salvia DMT 2 In uence serotonin 3 Alter perception alter thought and emotion produce hallucinations mystical experiences loss of contact with reality can produce euphoria feeling of oneness with the universe Low addiction potential Relatively nontoxic not poisonous won t result in major health difficulties Possible therapeutic uses depression drug 2 3 4 addiction PTSD a Effects are unpredictable people react differently to them and can react differently each time b Can produce psychosis in some individuals Mariiuana THC comes from hemp plant Agonist on cannabinoid receptor in nervous system Has depressant qualities Produces a loss of inhibition alters perceptions produces relaxation euphoria Disrupts memory concentration attention motor coordination REM cycle 5 Low toxicity no recorded deaths resulting from marijuana overdoses 6 Possible medical uses pain nausea appetite stimulant associated with cancer or AIDS VI Hypnosis a Technique used to increase a person s susceptibility to suggeonn i Focus on monotonous stimuli b Hypnotic susceptibilityability c Hypnosis is not effective for i memory retrieval ii drug addiction d Can be effective for i pain relief ii treating obesity e Explaining hypnosis i Placebo effect ii Altered state of consciousness dissociation iii selective attention 1 distraction and relaxation iv Role theory 1 complying with demands of situation v does not control behavior f Psychoactive drug useabuseaddiction i Social and emotional factors 1 Feeling that life is meaningless experiences of stress failure depression and abuse are associated with drug abuse 2 One s peers have a strong influence on whether a person uses andor abuses drugs 3 Teens who are bored and have a lot of money are more at risk 4 AfricanAmerican teens have lower rates of drinking smoking and cocaine use compared to other American teens VII Hypnosis a Technique used to increase a person s susceptibility to suggestion i Hypnotist typically has subject focus on monotonous stimulus such as a swinging pendulum and suggests that the subject s eyes are feeling heavy which happens naturally but subject tends to attribute the eyelid heaviness to the hypnotist s abilities Hypnotic susceptibilityability some people more easily hypnotized than others You cannot be hypnotized against your will Hypnosis is not effective for i memory retrieval subjects are likely to incorporate false information into their memories during hypnosis if exposed to suggestive questioning ii treating drug addiction no more effective than a placebo treatment Can be effective for i pain relief ii treating obesity Explaining hypnosis i Placebo effect subjects expect it to work and it does ii May encourage dissociation split of consciousness see text iii Hypnosis engages selective attention 1 The effects of hypnosis on pain relief can be replicated in subjects who are distracted and relaxed iv Role theory 1 Subjects of stage hypnotists may just be complying with demands of situation don t want to disappoint the audience 2 Subjects often don t obey hypnotic suggestion if they think no one is watching hypnotists cannot make subjects go out and commit murder etc