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Lecture 10 Notes

by: Abigail Towe

Lecture 10 Notes 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001

Abigail Towe
GPA 3.6
Vertebrate Biology
Richard W. Blob

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About this Document

This is the lecture notes from 9/24 where the graduate student taught the lecture. This includes all notes, explanations, and a few pictures/tables to help visual learners. Hope this helps!
Vertebrate Biology
Richard W. Blob
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Richard W. Blob in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 09/28/15
Before Exam we were looking at fish in shallow water transitioning into land lnvading land 0 Example Tiktaalik from httpwwwgoogecomursaiampsourceimgresampcdampcadrjaampuact8ampvedOCAijwaAGoVChMlsoS7pabyAlVBM2ACh1flwuwamp urlhttp3A2 F2 Fwwwsci newscom2Fpaleo ntology2 FsciencenewfossilstiktaalikroseaeO1686htmlamppsigAFQjCNGEWtwauAKYUeqopmsN Da8J mPMkAampust1443579505969423 1 air is less dense a meaning the environment above water doesn t support the body b skeleton is needed to aid in body support 2 air is less viscous than water a easier to move in air 3 air has more oxygen than water a respiration requires less energy especially since it s easier to move in air 4 air temperature less stable than water a land vertebrates need to thermoregulate 5 sensory mechanisms a sensation of electrical fields not viable on land b air movement won t stimulate lateral line system and is lost by land vertebrates 6 because land vertebrates aren t surrounded by water a there is water loss b and locomotion chances Summary Water MORE dense less dense MORE viscous less viscous less oxygen MORE OXYGEN MORE stable temperatures less stable temperatures allows use of lateral line system electrical fields not viable on land no water loss there IS water loss locomotion consistent for years locomotion changes how will it support itself with this new environment Suppon density of body tissues is about 1050 kgmquot3 density of water 998 to 1024 kgmquot3 density of air 1205 kgmquot3 about 00 times less than water Because the tissue density is close to water 1050 compared to 1024 it minimizes effects of gravity 0 Therefore the skeleton functions to provide muscle attachment sites and a means for transmitting forces through the body DOES NOT require skeletal system to maintain body shape in water But on land since the body 1050 kgmquot3 is denser than environmentair 1205 kgmquot3 then it requires that the skeleton function as a support system Modifications to internal skeleton in land vertebrates 1 robust ribs a function assist in supporting abdominal organs i example ichthyostega 1 organs won t sag to the ground 2 more protected and compact organs 2 changes in girdle attachment pectoral girdle a support is off the ground b detached from skull i this advantage increases head mobility c firmly attach limb girdles to vertebral column i for the pectoral girdle it s attach to muscular sling ii for the pelvic girdle it39s attached to the sacrum 3 zygapophyses facets between vertebrae helps support body off ground a this helps to support body off the ground b the facets were the vertebrate interlock is secure because land does not support the animal as much as water the animal can t get too large as the animals get bigger in length 0 as legs go from two to four the surface area increases and volume increases 0 the body mass and forces that are put on the bones increase like a volume XAS the body crosssectional areas that resist force increase like an area xquot2 as animals get bigger forces on their bones get bigger at faster rates than the ability to resist forces volume increases a lot faster than surface area This is a problem unlessthere is accommodation for size increasing I relatively more robust skelton 0 positive allometry I less risky vigorous activity Background Newton s third law 0 for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction applies to all locomotion in water fish can use fins body and their tail to use those forces in the water to movepropel them but in land you can t do that you only have specific point of contacts like feet to exert force on the environment Land vertebrates use same structures limbs for support and locomotion o the structures must be stiff strong and flexible o the structures are connected by jointed segments I the bones are stiff but joints allow mobility o remember the limbs evolved from sarcoptergians fins with a robust skelton in which rays were lost NOT evolved from fins Locomotion 0 fish body axis movements dominate locomotion 0 land vertebrates body axis movements reduces and most muscle is in appendages limbs limbs are most important for locomotion I decrease in axial muscles mass increase in appendicular muscles 0 Changes in Feeding Function 0 fish use suction draw viscous water into mouth take food with it o remember air is less viscous than water so suction doesn t work 0 instead vertebrates on land have to use a different strategy some of these strategies many fishes can use too I in common with fishes 0 ram feeding move head over prey and engulf whole 0 biting taking chunks out of bigger prey with teeth I other changes required since water is not brought in with food 0 use of mobile muscular tongue to move food around and help swallow o salivary glands secrete lubricating fluid to help chemically digest carbohydrates 0 remember gills don t work on land 0 too floppy delicate collapse in air so surface area covered and can t extract oxygen from air 0 but lungs do work on land 0 air is less dense light amp easy to move 0 little energy cost to breathe into sac and turn around to exhale I functions as a negative pressure system 0 when a vertebrate inhales contraction of muscles between ribs and diagram to allow expansion of the chest cavity decreasing lung pressure lungs will have less oxygen than the environmentair and allows air to be drawn inward o when the muscles relax the chest is compressed which increases lung pressure and forces the air out o higher blood pressure required on land since blood must be pumped vs using gravity 0 there are 2 circulatory circuits required for use of the lungs o pulmonary circuit heart gt lungs and lungs gt heart 0 systemic circuit oxygenated blood from heart pumped to body then returned to head 0 Comparing fish to land vertebrate fish have tubular heart system that pumps blood to gills where blood picks up oxygen then sends it to the rest of the body land vertebrates have sideby side pumps I the right side pumps to the lungs and returns to heart with oxygen pulmonary I left side pumps out to body and returns to heart without oxygen systemic changes in the circulatory system there is a loss or reorganization of blood vessels running to the gills aortic arches 1 skin a terrestrial vertebrates have epidermis with 2 layers i stratum germinativum deeper living tissue ii stratum corneum outermost dead cells 1 this contains proteins and lipids to help protect against water loss 2 urinary bladder a stores urine so it doesn t drain constantly i ancestrally probably capable of recovering water to body as in many modern amphibians and reptiles 1 because of the ability to recover water to help the body with hydration the content of the bladder is much more concentrated than it was when it first entered the body o land temperatures are much less stable than water vertebrates must thermoregulate not too hot not too cold 0 this helps to achieve best level of performance 0 Example garden snake 0 performance peaks at about 3035 C c There are several methods of thermoregulating OOO convection through air gain or loss of heat conduction through ground gain or loss of heat evaporation through waferloss heat loss only metabolism internally generated gain heat only Radiation Evaporation Convection Conduction from httpswwwgoogecomur saiamprctjampqampesrcsampsourcei magesampcdampcadrjaampuact8ampvedOCAcQj qu FQoTC PSsmlag m8gCFQn PngdsxAMOgamp u rlhttp3A2 F2 Fw wwquiacom2Fjg2F2550021isthtmampbvmbv103627116deXYamppsigAFQjCNHRb2PMpcobefWjPji7s7VHMmAampust1443581966632612 how to control heat gain or loss 0 behavioral move in or out of hotcold location 0 basking in the sun 0 physiological o dilation expansion or constriction of blood vessels I example 0 expanding blood vessels close to body surface allows more blood to flow faster through them and heat up blood at surface if hot outside 0 heated blood travels to body core to warm it up


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