Environmental science, Week 6
Environmental science, Week 6 ENVS 101 004
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bianca Notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 101 004 at University of New Mexico taught by Priewisch in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see The Blue Planet in Environmental Science at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Volcanoes Thursday September 24 2015 938 AM 0 a vent from which a combination of melted rock solid rock debris and gas is erupted a mixture of molten rock suspended mineral grains and dissolved gas Magma is less dense than the solid rock it formed from so it rises Characteristics of magma and lava 0 Characteristics of magma I Composition I Temperature I Viscosity I Pressure I Gas content 0 Range of composition I Basaltic magma 50 Silica little dissolved gas I Low viscosity 11 Low gas content III Hot magma III Low silica content I Andesitic magma 6070 Silica a lot of dissolved gas I Rhyolitic magma 70 Silica highest gas content III High gas content III High viscosity 11 Less hot III High silica content 0 Temperature I Ranges from 1472 F to 2192 F O Viscosity I Resistance to flow I Depends on temperature and composition I High Silica content is very viscous doesn39t want to flow I High temperature is less viscous flows more easily 0 Gas content I Influences atmosphere and climate resulting in greenhouse gases 0 Volcanic eruptions 0 Non explosive eruptions I Characteristics of lowviscosity and lowdissolved gas content magmas I BasalticHawaiian type eruption I Pahoehoe andor aa flow 0 Explosive eruptions I Lower temperatures higher silica content higher dissolvedgas contents than basaltic I fragments of hot shattered magmarock ejected during an explosive eruption are called ex volcanic ash can be very fine grains or large boulders 0 Lava flows 0 Basaltic lava 90 of erupted magma I Rough and jagged surface 0 Rhyolitic lava 1 of erupted magma 0 Volcanic hazards O Pyroclastic flows a mixture of hot gases with ash that flows down the volcanic slope Very fast and hot Can reach 60mph Chapter 6 Page 1 w mudflows on active or inactive volcanoes Volcanic ash tiny rock fragments that can be inhaled that mix with the moisture in your lungs and have the potential to form concrete Effects of volcanoes on climate ash can reflect the solar energy back to space which means suns rays don39t reach the surface resulting in a quotvolcanic winterquot Chapter 6 Page 2 Hydrologic Cycle Hydrosphere Thursday September 24 2 15 234 AM 0 Water and the hydrologic cycle 0 The unique chemical properties of water make life possible 0 Water plays a central role in moderating temperature and controlling climate that relates back to the properties 0 Erosion all and deposition at effects of streams waves and glaciers connected to tectonic activities 0 Is a closed system the volume of water stays the same on a global scale 0 Individual reservoirs are open systems I Same volume of water over short time intervals I Changing volume over long time intervals 0 Water reservoirs in the earth system Examples lakes oceans rivers streams ground water 0 Largest reservoir oceans saline water 975 0 Fresh water mainly frozen 74 0 Ground water 985 0 Chapter 6 Page 1 Seism IC Waves Wednesday September 23 2015 1100 AM 0 When an earthquake occurs elastic ally stored energy is carried outward from her focus by vibrations 0 Seismic waves belong to two families Body waves and surface waves 0 Body waves 0 There are two types Primary waves and Secondary waves 0 P waves compression and expansion I Passes through all mediums solids liquids and gases Expansion Compression A rcst Direction 0 Pwave travel A p We I O S waves shearing motion I Passes through solids only Direction of Swavo travel a I 0 Surface waves 0 they travel along all of earths solid surface Much slower than body waves Can have very long wavelengths and large amplitudes These are very damaging Rayleigh wave Love wave Chapter 6 Page 1 Earthquakes Wednesday September 23 21115 1111 AM 0 Seismic waves spread out spherically in all directions 0 measures earths movement during an earthquake using a pen paper and a heavy mass earth shakes the mass a pen attached to the mass writes on the paper based on the mass39 movement 0 then end result which is written on the piece of paper 0 Earthquakes 0 At a fault there is a focus point and an epicenter O pointregion where energy is first released during an earthquake I At some point earthquake sites are referenced by O point in earths surface directly about the focus 0 Locating an earthquake 0 Location of epicenter can be calculated 0 3 seismographs minimum will allow you to measure the arrival time of seismic waves 0 Arrival time allows calculating distance traveled 0 Magnitude of earthquakes O The magnitude of an earthquake is the amount of energy released 0 Quantified by I calculated from maximum recorded amplitudes of seismic waves with a correction of distance III Logarithmic each unit of increase corresponds to a 10fold increase in wave amplitude and a 32fold increase in the amount of energy released measures the energy released taking into account that the focus may be large area as opposed to a localized point based on the strength of vibrations people feel and the extent of damage that happens during an earthquake III No correction of distance earns intensity near the epicenter would be very high whereas hundreds of kilometers away it would be very low 0 Earthquake damage 0 Primary effects I results from the movement of seismic waves I fault breaks ground surfaces resulting in structures being split and broken apart 0 Secondary effects I Fires I Landslides I Liquefaction I Tsunami 0 also referred to as seismic sea waves are caused by sudden vertical displacement of the sea floor and produce significant damage Chapter 6 Page 1
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