First Week of Notes
First Week of Notes Chemistry 112
Popular in Principles of Chemistry I
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadia Shibly on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 112 at University of Oregon taught by Sophiya V. Garashchuk in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Oregon.
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Killer notes! I'm stoked I can finally just pay attention in class!!!
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chapter 3 Atoms and The Periodic Table Starts on pg 48 Chemistry Iarge scale macroscopic level gt properties and transformation submicroscopic level atomic level gt behaviors and properties of atoms individually Section 31 Atomic Theory 0 Greek Philosophers Aristotle matter can be divided infinitely Democritus correctly believed matter has limited amount of divisions Small and simplest form of an element 0 Atomic Theory 4 fundamental assumptions about atomsmatter 1 Matter all composed of atoms 2 Different elements have different numbers of atoms no one element is the same as another 3 Chemical compounds consist of atoms put together in a specific ratios only whole atoms can combine eX Atom A with Atom B or 1 Atom A with 2 Atom B s O Atoms are small in size range 74 X 10quot 11 m in diameter to 524 X 10 A lO m eX Uranium 395 X 10A 22 which is the heaviest natural atom Q Atoms are made up of positive charge 1 negatively charged 1 and neutral 0 Electrons are so much lighter than both protons and neutrons so the mass is normally ignored Positive proton 1672 622 X 10A 24 grams Neutral neutrons 1674 927X lOA 24 grams similar to protons Negative electrons usually ignored 0 Mass of atoms and subatomic particles are measured in grams but in a much more convenient way by using relative mass scale measuring one atom in comparison to another atom 0 relative mass base a carbon atom 6 protons and 6 neutrons which gives 12 atomic mass units AMU or also known as Dalton39s John Dalton the father of Atomic theory 1 amu 1 protor 1 neutron O Subatomic Particles are distributed in a dense core called the nucleus surrounded by electrons SEE FIGURE 31 on pg 51 APPLICATIONS gt Are Atoms Real 0 Dalton s Atomic Theory 1808 Electricity demonstrated the idea of atoms matter composed of charged particles eX rubbing a glass rod and silk cloth which becomes static electricity 0 1897 JJ Thomson Magnetic fields to de ect a beam of sub particles demonstrates how electrons were lighter in water solutions aqueous HA Q Rutherford 1910 Electrons make up an atom mostly filled with empty space Mostly the mass and the protons are found in a region called the nucleus Scanning tunneling microscopes STM gt a deVices that allows one to see atoms Section 32 Elements and Atomic Number 0 the number of protons an element has denoted as Z Atoms are generally neutral no net charge 0 the sum of the protons and neutral neutrons in an atom A ex sodium atoms gt 11 protons and 12 neutrons Mass of 23 Section 33 Isotopes and Atomic Weight 0 identical Atomic Numbers but different numbers for it s mass eX hydrogen has 3 kinds of isotopes Protium gt no neutrons mass number of 1 Deuterium gt One neutron mass number of 2 Tritium gt 2 neutrons mass number of 3 O Isotopes are written as mass number A in a subscript as well as the atomic number as a subscript in front of the Atomic Symbol eX A Z X where X shows the chemical symbol 0 Average mass of element s atoms calculated by the sum of the mass of the isotopes indiVidually for the element or the formula Atomic Weight the sum of the isotopic abundance multiplied by the isotope mass round to 4 significant figures IN CLASS NOTES for September 28th 2015 335559999999brii
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