General Biology 121- Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
General Biology 121- Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Bio 121
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 121 at Syracuse University taught by Wiles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Biological Sciences at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life 41 Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 0 the chemistry of carbon compounds 42 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to 4 other atoms 0 The electron con guration to an atom determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms Valence electrons are available to form bonds with other atoms The Formation of Bonds with Carbon 0 Carbon has 6 electrons with 2 in the 1st electron shell and 4 in the 2nCI shell thus it has 4 valence electrons in a shell that can hold up to 8 electrons A carbon atom usually completes its valence shell by sharing its 4 electrons with other atoms so that 8 electrons are present 0 Each pair of shared electrons constitutes a covalent bond 0 ln organic molecules carbon usually forms single or double covalent bonds 0 Each carbon atom acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in as many as 4 directions This enables carbon to form large complex molecules 0 When a carbon atom forms 4 single covalent bonds the arrangement of its 4 hybrid orbitals causes the bonds to angle toward the corners of an imaginary tetrahedron Hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and carbon are the 4 major atomic components of organic molecules They re also carbon s most frequent bonding partners 0 These valences are the basis for the rules of covalent bonding in organic chemistry 0 Example in the carbon dioxide molecule C02 a single carbon atom is joined to 2 atoms of oxygen by double covalent bonds 0 C O 0 Each line in a structural formula represents a pair of shared electrons Thus the 2 double bonds in C02 have the same number of shared electrons as 4 single bonds o The arrangement completes the valence shells of all atoms in the molecule Molecular Diversity Arising from Variation in Carbon Skeletons Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules 0 The skeletons may be straight branched or arranged in closed rings Some carbon skeletons have double bonds that vary in number and location The 4 covalent bonds can be single double or triple Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen 0 Many of a cell s organic molecules have regions consisting of only carbon and hydrogen Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a relatively large amount of energy lsomers are compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but have different structures and hence different properties There are 3 types of isomers structural isomers cistrans isomers and enantiomers differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms The number of possible isomers increases as carbon skeletons increase in size Structural isomers may also differ in the location of double bonds 0 carbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangements due to the in exibility of double bonds Single bonds allow the atoms they join to rotate freely about the bond axis without changing the compound But double bonds don t permit this rotation If a double bond joins 2 carbon atoms and each C also has 2 different atoms attached to it then 2 distinct cis trans isomers are possible For example a molecule with 2 double bonded carbons each of which has an H and an X attached to it could be arranged with both Xs on the same side of the double bond This would be a cis isomer But if the X5 are on the opposite side then it s a trans isomer 0 are isomers that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon one that s attached to 4 different atoms or groups of atoms 43 A few chemical groups are key to molecular function 0 The properties of an organic molecule depend on the arrangement of its carbon skeleton and the chemical groups attached to that skeleton The Chemical Groups Most Important in the Processes of Life 0 are a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound 0 Each functional group has certain properties like shape and charge which cause it to participate in chemical reactions in a characteristic way 0 The 7 chemical groups most important in biological processes are the hydroxyl carbonyl carboxyl amino sulfhydryl phosphate and methyl groups
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