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by: Hazel Medina

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# Week 0 Book Notes - Thermal Physics Physics 60

Marketplace > University of California - Irvine > Physics 2 > Physics 60 > Week 0 Book Notes Thermal Physics
Hazel Medina
UCI
GPA 3.0
Thermal Physics
Feng, J.

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Despite it being week 0, the professor already had a lecture. Here are the notes for that lecture. Next week's notes will be up next week! :)
COURSE
Thermal Physics
PROF.
Feng, J.
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
2
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## 1

1 review
"I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER"
Kaela

## Popular in Physics 2

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hazel Medina on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Physics 60 at University of California - Irvine taught by Feng, J. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Thermal Physics in Physics 2 at University of California - Irvine.

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## Reviews for Week 0 Book Notes - Thermal Physics

I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER

-Kaela

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Date Created: 09/28/15
Physics 60 09252015 Week 0 Ch 11 Thermal Equilibrium O operational definition tells how to measure quantity in question eg temperature is what you measure with a thermometer thermometers rely on two objects in contact reaching equal temperature in time thermal equilibrium state objects reach after being in contact long enough relaxation time time it takes for two objects to reach thermal equilibrium contact requires some way for two objects to exchange energy spontaneously in the form of heat I need thermal insulation like on a thermos between objects to slow energy transferring between them ie increase relaxation time diffuse equilibrium equilibrium where molecules of substances move randomly alongside each other ie substances combine eg cream and coffee cream and coffee both reach equilibrium and the molecules that make up the coffee and those that make up the cream move with each other mechanical equilibrium largescale motions can take place but no longer do eg balloons balloons reach a point where they can get larger but don t like how hot air balloons only get large to a certain point Exchanged Quantity Type of Equilibrium Energy Thermal Volume Mechanical Particles Diffuse note how thermal equilibrium exchanges energy 0 thermal equilibrium moves energy from higher to lower concentrations I theoretical definition for temperature becomes temperature measure of tendency of an object to spontaneously give up energy to surroundings when two objects are in thermal contact the object with higher temperature tends to lose energy I most thermometers run on thermal expansion materials tend to occupy more volume when hot ie the substance in a thermometer expands when heated absolute zero 273 C defines zero point on absolute temperature scale temperature where a lowdensity gas at constant pressure goes to zero SI unit kelvin K Ch 12 The Ideal Gas 0 Ideal gas law PV nRT P pressure V volume n number of moles of mass R universal constant R831JmolK T temperature in Kelvins O 1 mole Avogadro s number NA 6021O23 o N nNA o k RNA o The ideal gas law becomes nR Nk v Microscopic Model ofan Ideal Gas 0 How does temperature relate to energy Imagine cylinder of length L with one gas molecule in it being pushed through an opening by a piston with surface area A Le the volume in the cylinder is volume VLA The molecule has velocity 13 note that its velocity changes as it bounces off the walls of the cylinder but it doesn t lose kinetic energy because they are elastic collisions off of the perfectly smooth surfaces of the cylinder 0 Using ideal gas law PV NkT where P pressure 0 Average pressure exerted on the piston I3 x on piston A x on moecue A mExAt A Have At 2L vxand Avx Vxlfina vX initial vX vx 2vX The equation becomes 13 mA2vX2Lvx mvx2 AL mvx2 v Now imagine same cylinder and piston arrangement with large number of identical molecules moving randomly but not colliding with each other 0 This means that PV Nmi7x2 o Treating the ideal gas law as an experimental fact kT mix2 or 12kT 12m17x2 Same holds for if 17 is replaced with 17f or 172 Average translational kinetic energy Evans mvx2 32kT o This model shows good interpretation of Boltzmann s constant k as a conversion factor between temperature and molecular energy For example in room temperature 300 K kT 1381O3923JK300 K 414103921 but joules is inconvenient for small energies Instead ofjoules electronvolt eV is used 1 eV 161O3919 J 4141039211 026 eV 0 Evans 32kT is true for gases liquids and sometimes solids

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