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Week 7, Astronomy Notes

by: Raleigh Zook

Week 7, Astronomy Notes ASTR 1210

Marketplace > University of Virginia > Astronomy > ASTR 1210 > Week 7 Astronomy Notes
Raleigh Zook
GPA 3.55

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About this Document

These notes go over the second part of the telescopes lectures, and they also discuss comparative planetology.
Introduction to the Sky and Solar System
Remy Indebebetouw
Class Notes
astronomy, Science, Planetology, Telescope
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raleigh Zook on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1210 at University of Virginia taught by Remy Indebebetouw in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Sky and Solar System in Astronomy at University of Virginia.


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Date Created: 03/17/16
Week 7 Notes Telescopes Cont. • Why are radio telescopes big? Observing at a longer wavelength • Magnification =Telescope’s Focal Length / Eyepiece’s Focal Length o Brings light to a focus • Image size = Angular size x Telescope’s focal length • Imaging o One color of light is recorded at a time on astronomical detectors. More than one image must be used to create fully colored picture. Earth’s atmosphere • Affects Ground-Based Observations: o Minimal light pollution (dark) o Dry—no rain, clouds o Higher altitude = Less atmosphere to see through o Good “seeing” (i.e. not much turbulence); Calm/Not that windy o For observatory, it is also good for it to be accessible, have a large aperture, have good optics/adaptive, has a large format, has a dome (enclosure), and has low-noise detectors • Light Pollution o Scattering off of what is in the atmosphere (Human-made light) • Twinkling and Turbulence o Turbulence distorts our view of space, which is why it looks like stars twinkle • Adaptive Optics o There are aberrations in telescopes, such as: § Lenses and mirrors not perfect, so there is a figure (e.g. spherical aberration) • A sphere is not a parabola • Distance is the same between line and focal point with a parabola (Hard to make, spheres are easier to make) § Chromatic aberration § Aberrations in eyes • E.g. nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism o Perfect optics that are carefully designed and maintain a figure/shape of the optics • Transmission o Only radio and visible light easily pass through our atmosphere § Telescopes are used in space to view other forms Radio Telescopes Interferometry • Technique to link 2+ telescopes to have an angular resolution of one, single, large telescope Infrared and Ultraviolet Telescopes • They operate like visible-light telescopes X-Ray Telescopes • Above atmosphere • Focusing requires special mirrors; Mirrors arranged to focus its photons by grazing bounces off the surface of the telescope Non-Visible Light Telescopes • High energy light, it is tricky Week 7 Notes—Chapter 7 of Cosmic Perspective Comparing Planets • Comparing processes that are within multiple worlds instead of simply knowing facts specific to each specific world • Hydrogen and Helium are typical gases within universe • Sun o Over 99.9% of mass • Mercury o Metal, rock, large iron core; Desolate craters; Long, tall, steep cliffs; Very hot and cold; Darker than the moon • Venus o About same size as Earth; Closer to sun than Earth; Surface of Venus is hotter than Mercury; Its surface is hidden by its clouds; Extreme greenhouse effect à Hellish conditions; Winds • Earth o Only surface that has liquid water in the solar system; Large moon • Mars o Little atmosphere; Volcanoes and canyons; Polar caps; Water has flowed, so there may have been life; Looks earth-like; Have sent two major rovers (but there has been more) that drive around the surface o Mars Express à Vulcanism o Briny water § Wider and darker lines grow during the summer—some sort of liquid water due to perchlorate salts which keeps its temperature down (Spectral fingerprints) o Methane sniffer en route to Mars to find out if it is biological in origin • Jupiter o Lots of rings; Further from Sun; H/He and no solid surface; Active volcanoes; Large; Cratered; Liquid ocean underneath; “Ice ball” o Jupiter’s moons can be planets themselves (Jupiter’s four Galilean moons) • Saturn o Rings (are not solid—made of icy rocks that orbit like a moon), moons o Cassini orbiting around it o Geysers (Thermal and theological activity) on moons • Uranus o Gas giant; Hydrogen compounds; Tilted almost 90 à Extreme seasons • Neptune o Similar to Uranus except for its tilt • Pluto and other Dwarf Planets o Icy and like a comet’s composition; Its moon is similar to its size o Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt Planets • Orbit in same direction and in same plane • Patterns: o Nearly circular motion o Orderly motion o The inner planets are more rocky and terrestrial, while outer planets are Jovian and gaseous Deductive v. Inductive • Deductive o Valid versus invalid o Sound argument versus unsound argument o If p then q. § P= antecedent § Q= Consequent • Inductive o Strong versus weak argument o Cogent versus uncogent argument Three categories: 1. Irrelevant a. Ad hominem b. Appeal to authority c. Genetic fallacy—Argument based on a source 2. Ambiguity a. Straw man arguments; Twisting argument around to make it confusing i. Misrepresenting a position so that it appears weaker b. Accent fallacies—Statement’s meaning is changed where its stress had been placed 3. Presumption a. False dilemmas; Argument cast in a way that it seems to not be true • If two propositions conflict with one another, then one of them must be false • If it is logically possible it does not mean it is physically possible or real • Skeptical of propositions that conflict with one another • An expert in one field does not mean he/she is an expert in another field • Bias o Confirmation Bias § Too critical if it conflicts with your point of view o Media Bias § Narrative bias (Beginning, middle, and end) § Commercial bias § Fairness bias (Equal time and weight, etc.)


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