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Social Psychology Week Six Notes

by: Caspar Snyder

Social Psychology Week Six Notes 21198

Marketplace > University at Buffalo > 21198 > Social Psychology Week Six Notes
Caspar Snyder
GPA 3.8
Social Psychology
Mark Seery

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About this Document

We finish discussing reasoning fallacies and move onto attitude and its effect on how we behave.
Social Psychology
Mark Seery
Class Notes
Psychology, social psychology, ub
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caspar Snyder on Saturday October 4, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 21198 at University at Buffalo taught by Mark Seery in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 99 views.


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Date Created: 10/04/14
Social Psychology Week Six Notes 2 We see what we want Remember the self 0 We seek positive selfview high self esteem 0 we 1lwork for it 0 can we go too far 0 Is it bad for us Positive Illusion seeing self in objectively overly positive light 0 Defines objective as how everyone else sees me Mental health classic definition Positive self regard Ability to care for others Ability to do productive Work Accurate view of reality 0 Being able to see things that other people are seeing Accurate view of reality Is this reasonable 0 Mathematically impossible Are you crazy 0 Is this a bad thing 0 It shouldn t be Illusion and Wellbeing Taylor and Brown 1988 Three types of positive illusions 0 Unrealistically positive views of self 0 Unrealistic optimism 0 Exaggerate perceptions of personal control Overlap 0 Not mutually exclusive Link to Well being Unrealistically positive views of self We are all better than average 0 Prominent answer in any group of people you ask 0 Our friends too Give selves credit for success but no blame for failure 0 Example fail a test 0 The test wasn t fair the professor sucks etc 0 Do Well 0 oh well I m smart so it was all me 0 Selfserving bias 0 For our friends too Rate ourselves higher than observers do 0 Everyone forms an impression of everyone else 0 Study group interaction task personality ratings Unrealistic optimism We tend to be optimistic 0 We believe present is better than past 0 We expect future to be even better 0 Particularly for us versus others 39 On average Expect What We Want 0 Not What is objectively likely 0 That the outlook looks pretty good 0 The odds of winning the lottery is very very small but people play it anyways I Odds are against you Exaggerated perceptions of control Gambling 0 Example you versus others rolling a dice 0 Number is entirely random 0 Objectively we tell ourselves that it doesn t matter I Except We prefer to roll than let others roll 0 Exaggerated perception that We can manipulate the dice 0 Example Langer lottery study People regularly played lotto at an office 0 o Randomly given lotto tickets 0 Choose own lotto ticket versus having someone else choose it for you 0 People then offer to buy it back I People who picked it themselves Want 4x more money 0 Ticket is more valuable to them Illusion of unique invulnerability 0 Bad things won t happen to me 0 because I control my outcomes I There s something special about me 0 Example driving 0 I m a good driver I can handle it I Everyone else is thinking the same thing 0 Driving feels safer than ying I We feel like we re in control Links to wellbeing Control 0 Invulnerability illusion 0 Physical health I Not so good I Could be physically dangerous I Example driving While drunk 0 Think car insurance 0 Who s more likely to be physically dangerous I Charged more teenage males 0 Critically ill patients no cure 0 Focus on controlling symptoms life tasks good adjustment I Good psychological adjustment I Level of exaggeration is small 0 Focus on impossible cure not so good Positive viewsoptimism 0 Task persistence and effort 0 Overly optimistic study more for next exam 0 I failed but I think I m capable of doing better I Trying in face of adversity I More likely to push envelope 0 People with high self esteem are more likely to 0 Ultimately better outcomes on whole 0 Physical health 0 If optimism makes stress seem less stressful 0 can have health benefits I Chronically feeling overwhelmed 9 allosteric loads wear and tear I Chronically seeing events as manageable or not Implications See what we expect 0 Time and effort saver 0 Maintain inaccurate beliefs 0 Act on them I Selffulfilling prophecy See what we want 0 Positive illusions can be good 0 But only in moderation I Example seeing more control where some actually exists not none I Excessive illusions 0 Hallucinations psychoses etc What is an attitude Very difficult question 0 Disagreement in the field Technical definition Eagly and Chaiken 1998 0 Psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor o Psychological tendency I Throw away term Easy definition positive or negative evaluation of an object We have attitudes about all kinds of things 0 Ourselves other people abstract concepts bricks Why are attitudes interesting 0 What might our attitudes lead us to do 0 Attitudes predict our behaviorsprejudice 0 Big reason in uences our behavior o I don t hire X types of people Effects of attitudes on behavior Conventional wisdom attitudes cause behavior 0 30s only very weak relationship 0 Doesn t strongly predict behaviors 0 50s 60s Panic Jump ship 0 Thought they were wasting time I Most gave up research attitudes 0 More research later on clearer picture 0 5 factors for strong attitude behavior relationships I Not exhaustive 1 Measure attitude toward behavior Distinction attitudes toward 0 Behavior target 0 Behavior itself 0 Example political candidate 0 Attitude towards candidate is separate from attitude towards donating money to the candidate Early attitude research attitudes toward targets 0 Weak predictor of behavior 0 Reason only one of many factors into attitude towards behavior 0 Could be broke 9 less likely to donate I Attitude says otherwise 0 Stronger predictor 2 Get an accurate measurement Only measure expressed attitude 0 Can t nd an attitude in a brain scan 0 Indirect attitude Goes through self presentational filter 0 Don t Want to make a bad presentation 0 Don t want to look bad 0 by revealing objectionable views we hold 0 Example secret bigot 0 Really racistprejudice but its socially unacceptable so they refrain from being honest with their attitude Sigall et al 1971 bogus pipeline Fool people into expressing true attitude 0 This machine will let us know if you lie Procedure 0 Strapped into equipment 0 Very intimidating 0 indicates positivenegative attitudes 0 Subjects given sample questions not controversial 0 Not socially damaging 0 Machine tums out to be right I Questions were taken from forgotten questionnaire they took Weeks ago 0 Whites were asked about Blacks 0 As a social group 0 Manipulation bogus pipeline or paper and pencil Results 0 Paper and pencil rated Blacks more positively 0 Relative to the average American at the time o Bogus pipeline rated more negatively Implications 0 Someone might seem friendly attitude 0 but stab you in the back behavior 39 Or vice versa 0 True attitudes can be hard to come by 0 but are better predictors of behavior 3 Measure speci c attitude Distinction specific versus general attitude 0 Example cats 0 General I don t like cats 0 Speci c but this one cat acts like a dog and is really cute Fishbein and Aj zen literature review 0 26 out of 27 studies general attitudes did not predict specific behavior 0 All 26 specific attitudes did 4 Make attitudes accessible Accessibility likelihood that the information will become active in cognitive processes 0 Increased accessibility increased chance attitude will come to mind Snyder and Swann 0 Affirmative action questionnaire 0 Two weeks later mock jurors in sex discrimination case 0 Manipulation organize your thoughts or nothing 0 On affirmative action 0 Results decision followed original attitudes more closely when they were accessible 0 If they were askedreminded about affirmative action 5 Strong attitudes Better predictors of behavior Resistant to change 0 Can t be easily talked out of 0 Stick with attitude despite con icting input Stable over time Many many in uences on attitude strength 0 Intraattitudinal aspects e g consistent experience 0 Example cats again I The cat likes to be petted 0 but attacks on occasion 0 Experience is inconsistent 0 Interattitudinal aspects e g linked to values 0 Example jury duty I I like jury duty 0 Because I have a linked attitude towards being a civil servant and value making civilization a better place Personal experience is big 0 Leads to stronger attitude


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