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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Ashley Porterfield on Saturday October 4, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 133B at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 172 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/14
0 Week Lecture Introduction and Brain Development Professor39s office middle building on second floor Study of children39s thinking What changes from infancy to early school aged children Readings Textbook Research articles available on course website Do readings prior to lecture 3 non cumuative exams throughout the quarter 1 final cumulative exam Will only consider the highest 3 exams o If you do well on the first 3 exams feel free to skip the final exam and take a 0 There will be review sessions prior to each exam Compared to a newborn baby there is a lot of change that occurs by adolescence Brain development Brain development Changes in brain size Changes in brain structure o Prefrontal cortex is immature at birth with development it matures Changes in neurons o Increased connectionssynapses o Become myelinated speeds signals Pattern of brain development Neuron birth 9 6 20 weeks prenatal peaks 23 weeks prenatal Neuron migration Neuron differentiation 9 flourishes up to 23 years peaks in childhood through adolescence Dendrites and axons grow Brain development Synaptogenesis birth of connections 0 Results in trillions of connections 0 Many of these are unneeded 6 month old babies have almost twice as many synapses in visual cortex as adults but cannot see as well 9 don39t need more connections only need the right connections Pruning connections are cut 0 Process by which the synapses that are important are kept and those that are unimportant are thrown away Synaptogenesis Most neurons are formed before birth but there aren39t many synapses Input from environment is important from brain growth 0 Experience and environment forms the right synapses and prunes efficiently Occurs by the second year of life 83 of dendritic growth connections between synapses occurs after birth After birth development is the refinement of neuronal connections maturity of the neurons and increasing complexity of dendrite connections Neurons and synapses must be linked properly to develop skillsabilities Infancy and childhood 9 cerebral cortex overproduces synapses 0 Competition for survival of the fittest synapses 0 Experience shapes and solidifies synapses Pruning Pruning leads to a loss of up to 10 volume of gray matter in the cortex Weight of brain is maintained due to increased myelination 2 Types of Synapse Development 1 Experienceexpectant development overproduce synapses and prune with experience Experience leads to less synapses Tied to criticalsensitive periods 0 If you39re not getting the right kind of input during a specific part of development you won39t have a certain skill ie visual Organizes brain to process info and behaviors typical to all humans 0 Sensory processes 0 Parental attachment 0 Eye hand coordination 0 Language capacity 2 Experiencedependent development Synapses based on experience Experience leads to more synapses Not necessary for typical development and survival Individual differences between humans based on individual expenence 0 Playing an instrument reading chess Movie The Secret Life of the Brain 9 Wider than the Sky Foow aong questions Neural cell migration what is it and why does it happen 0 Evidence that young neurons have an idea about where they39re migrated to and recognize their position within the brain 9 travels with it39s neighbors and copies ac ons Transplanted neuron does not copy actions 9 this means that before migration neurons have a set des ny Why does experience matter for newborn babies How are they attempting to help preemie babies by changing their expe ence 0 Brain cells wiring depends on experience dynamic process 0 Many preemies end up having learning and decision making issues 9 some think this is due to the nature of the ICU vs the womb Brain faces more challenges than it would in the womb Hypersensitivity and over stimuation 0 Carefully atuned environment allows for better management in future What does Use it or lose it mean 0 If connections in the brain are not used they are lost through pruning