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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Ashley Porterfield on Saturday October 4, 2014. The Reader belongs to 133B at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 102 views.
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Date Created: 10/04/14
An Introduction to Children39s Thinking What is Children39s Thinking Thinking between birth through adolescence o Constantly changing developing Thinking higher mental processes problem solving etc 0 Also more basic processes language perceiving external events 0 Thoughtnon inteectua processes social skills morals acceptable emotions Study Appearance vs Reality 0 3 and 6 yr olds pet cat asked what the animal is Both ages know it is a cat 0 Put a mask of a dog on the cat and asked what the animal is Age 3 thinks it s a dog while age 6 knows it is still a cat Are Some Capabilities Innate Associationist perspective 0 Locke Hume Mill 1700s and 1800s 0 Infants born with minimum capabilities Can associate experiences with each other All capacities acquired via learning Constructivist perspective 0 Piaget 1920 1970s 0 Infants born with associative capabilities and several perceptual and motor capabilities Environment 9 construct more sophisticated concepts Infants 36 mo cannot form mental representations but are able to later in 1st yr Competent infant perspective 0 Spelke Newport 1998 0 Young infants have wide range of perceptual skills and conceptual understanding Can classify experiences along same dimensions as adults 0 Infants can tell what objects are closer vs farther away the day after birth 9 distance perception o By 3 months some understanding that objects don39t disappear when moved behind something that objects fall without support objects move along spatially continuous paths solid objects can39t move through each other 9 properties of objects By 6 months realize that an object needs a sufficient support to not fall 0 General learning mechanisms Imitation 9 learn new behaviors and strengthen bonds 0 Statistical learning 9 finding sequential patterns from an input detect regularities in environment Patterns in auditory and visual input Does children39s thinking progress through qualitatively different stages Darwin discussed development of reason curiosity attention imagination language sef consciousness 0 Development as a species has occurred in stages so a person39s lifetime might develop in stages 9 evolutionary perspective Maybe children make transitions quickly 9 Stage theorists think it39s more like a metamorphosis Associationists think it39s built brick by brick Baldwin 0 Sensorimotor stage 9 quasilogical 9 logical 9 hyperlogical o Influenced Piaget Developed stage theory and popularized this view Concurrence assumption Flavell o Children transition from one stage to another on many concepts at the same time Abruptness assumption Flavell 0 Children move though stages suddenly not gradually Coherent organization 0 Child39s understanding is an organized whole instead of independent pieces of knowledge Development involves qualitative change that occurs simultaneously for many concepts occurs suddenly and involves transitions between different coherent ways of thinking How do changes in children39s thinking occur Prenatal period 0 Capabilities can develop fully partially not at all After birth 0 Capabilities can decline or stay the same 0 Partial capabilities can grow decline stay the same 0 Undeveloped capabilities can grow or stay the same Piaget o Assimilation process by which we represent experiences in terms of existing understanding 0 Accommodation process by which we alter our understanding through new knowledge Information processing approach to thinking 0 Automatization Mental processes increasingly become more efficientautomatic o Encoding Take relevant features of objectsevents and form representations 0 Generalization Extending knowledge of one context to other contexts 0 Strategy construction Making new procedure to solve a problem 0 These change processes work together Why do individual children differ so much from each other in their thinking Intelligence 0 Not all children think and reason at the same level 0 Tests distinguish between chronological age and mental age Mental age age at which 50 of children answer correctly as many items on the test as the particular child did 0 IQ Intelligence Quotient Mental Age Chronological Age x 100 Average IQ 100 for any age Stability over time accurate prediction of school achievement Measures of 7 mo infant info processing 9 continuity between intelligence in infancy and childhood 0 Higher rates of habituation and novelty preference the higher the IQ scores 410 yrs later 0 Slower rates of habituation 9 learning disabilities at age 6 0 Why Reflects effectiveness of encoding How does development of the brain contribute to cognitive development Changes in the brain as a whole 0 Increases in weight from birth to adulthood 9 more advanced thinking 0 Changes in structure within the brain Cerebral cortex high level cognitive skills 2 Immature in weight and activity at birth and for several years relative to other parts of the brain 4 lobes of CC 2 Frontal lobe 9 consciousness planning regulation of thought Particularly immature at birth 2 Parietal lobe 2 Occipital lobe 9 processes visual info 2 Temporal lobe 2 hemispheres connected via corpus callosum 2 Each processes sensory info and motor responses from the opposite side of the body 2 Lateralization one hemisphere plays a dominant role in linguisticlogical left vs emotionalspatial processing right 9 present in infancy 2 Study compared patterns of mouth opening in 512 mo infants as they babbled Opened wider on right side 9 suggests eft hemi control Non babbing sounds opened both sides just as wide 0 Left hemisphere is preferentially involved in language processing from early in first yr Changes in neurons 0 During development neurons get increasingly interconnected o Neurons have 3 parts nucleus dendrites take in info from other neurons and an axon transmit info to other neurons Info transmitted both chemically and electrically 2 Electrical within neuron 2 Chemical between neurons Synapses gaps between neurons 2 Electric impulse across axon 9 release chemical neurotransmitters into synapse 9 picked up by other neuron s dendrites 9 converted into electric signal to transmit within neuron 2 Adults 1 neuron has 1000 synapses Multiple connections transmit throughout brain Synaptogenesis o The formation of synapses between neurons 0 Incomplete at birth Early development rapid overproduction of synapses Childhood synapses are pruned gradually 0 Genetic control in early phases Later experience becomes more important Experience 9 synapse fires 9 neurotransmitters released 9 maintains synapse 2 If synapses aren39t used they are pruned 0 Excess synapses early in life capabilities acquired more effectively than adults ie language acquisition 0 Early neural plasticity allows easy adaptation to expenences Better recovery from brain damage because brain rewires itself Musical training has large effect on cortical organization at younger ages Plasticity decreases over lifespan How does the social world contribute to cognitive development Once babies enter the world they are in a social environment 0 Interactions artifacts exist only because of people books etc skills reflect culture and heritage values that guide probem soving o Influential on what is thought about and how Sociocultural perspective 0 Lev Semenovich Vygotsky 1900s 0 Development occurs in knowledge cognitive processes social life cultural forms of behavior 0 Must analyze behavior in context to understand developmental changes in abilities Social and cultural contexts exist in layers 0 Innermost layer microsystems Social relationships o Mesosystems Interrelated microsystems ie family and schooD o Exosystems Child doesn39t play direct role but still influences development ie school board 0 Macrosystem Broader cultural context Social Interaction and Cognitive Development Vygotsky higher psychological processes have origin in social interactions 0 Children begin doing cognitive tasks with help from others and later internalize them and can perform by themselves 0 Central mechanism of development internalization of socially shared processes Social scaffolding 0 Help children think about a task appropriately giving hints 0 Provide framework for children to think in advanced ways later can perform without external support The Cultural Context of Cognitive Development Cultural tools objects and ideas that allow one to reach a goal ie computers maps math gravity Activities 0 US children are mostly segregated from adults socioeconomic world 0 In other cultures they may be more integrated meal prep cleaning farming etc
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