Chapter 4 Book Notes
Chapter 4 Book Notes Psy331
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Santasero on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy331 at University at Buffalo taught by Seery in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
Reviews for Chapter 4 Book Notes
These were really helpful...I'll be checking back regularly for these
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/29/15
GOOD 0 OOO COO O 0 00 O 0 Chapter 4 Social Cognition and Perception Social cognition is the way in which we interpret analyze remember and use information about the social world The fast and automatic operation of implicit cognition sets the stage for all social judgements Categories are the mental building blocks of cognition Social categorization is the process of forming categories of people based on their common attributes Categorizing has less to do with the features that define all members of a category and more to do with the features that categorize a typical member A prototype is the most representative member of a category Ex patrol officer vs undercover cop doctors vs nurses based on sex A schema is an organized structure of knowledge about a stimulus that is built up from experience and that contains causal relations it is a theory about how the social world operates Schemas hasten the processing of information and hence the processing of decisionmaking Gender schema is a cognitive structure for processing information based on its perceived male and female qualities Laura not developing her math skills as a result of gender schema A script is a schema that describes how a series of events is likely to occur in a well known situation and which is used as a guide for behavior and problem solving Types of schemas applied to people are Personality theories Stereotypes Schemas will determine what information in our surroundings we pay attention to and how quickly we process it what information we form memories about and what information we later recall when making decisions Screen information Ex skinhead helping a handicapped person If something doesn t fit the bill we may develop new schema while maintaining old schema Priming is the process by which recent exposure to certain stimuli or events increases the accessibility of certain memories categories or schemas Schema helps to shape how we perceive ourselves and it can affect our behavior Heuristics are timesaving mental shortcuts that reduce complex judgements to simple rules Heuristics must satisfy two requirements They must allow us to make quick judgements They must be reasonably accurate These two don t always go handinhand Representativeness heuristic is the tendency to judge the category membership of things based on how closely they match the typical or average member of that category When we stereotype someone we first place them in a category and then we infer that they must possess the qualities of those we place in that category representativeness heuristic is this process reversed I I I OOIIIOOOOOOOOOOO 0000 0 OOO Baserates are the frequency with which some event or pattern occurs in the general population The availability heuristic is the tendency to judge the frequency or probability an event in terms of how easy it is to think of examples of that event The most important factor is not the content of their memory recall rather the ease with which the content comes to mind The anchoring and adjustment heuristic is a tendency to be biased toward the starting value or anchor in making quantitative judgements Ex Population of Cincinnati Ohio Situations that are most likely to lead to use of heuristics Time Being overloaded with information Importance of the issue in question Having little other knowledge Priming Being in a positive mood encourages us to put forth less effort Key Concepts Social categorization entails classifying people into groups based on common attributes Schemas are organized knowledge structures that Provide theories about how the social world operates Hasten information processing and decision making Influence what information is remembered and later recalled Priming makes memories categories and schemas more accessible Heuristics allow quick judgements with minimal cognitive effort but can cause biased and inaccurate judgements The representativeness heuristic involves judging the category membership of things based on how closely they match the prototype for that category The availability heuristic involves judging the probability of an event in terms of how easy it is to think of examples of it The anchoring and adjustment heuristic involves being biased toward the starting value or anchor in making quantitative judgements Hindsight bias is the tendency once an event has occurred to overestimate our ability to have foreseen the outcome Fueled by our desire for sensemaking Seen throughout the world and usually develops by age three Hindsight bias is likely to occur if the sensemaking threatens selfesteem Claiming ignorance allows us to avoid blaming ourselves Counterfactual thinking is the tendency to evaluate events by imagining alternative versions or outcomes to what actually happened These thoughts may help us feel better following a negative outcome Can help make us better prepared for the future However when counterfactual thinking is used to improve our mood our motivation to take corrective steps to avoid similar events in the future can be reduced O O OOOOOOIIOO 00000000 0 OO Tendency to engage in counterfactual thinking following traumatic events can end up doing more harm than good Victimblame Thought suppression is the attempt to prevent certain thoughts from coming into consciousness Plays an important role in selfregulation Two cognitive functions Automatic monitoring process of implicit cognition Controlled operating process of explicit cognition Rebound effect or ironic reversal can occur when trying to repress thoughts Anterior cingulate is particularly active during thought suppression Can take a toll on our mental and physical health Key Concepts The hindsight bias involves overestimating our ability to have foreseen the outcome of an event Counterfactual thinking involves evaluating events by imagining alternative versions or outcomes Thought suppression involves both and automatic early warning monitoring process for unwanted thoughts and a conscious active prevention operating process to distract attention away from the unwanted thoughts Person perception is the process by which we try to detect other people s temporary states and enduring dispositions First impression is the first phase of person perception it often involves nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication is communication of feelings and intentions without words Important methods are facial expressions and body movements Darwin theorized that facial expressions play an important role in communication and that certain emotional expressions are inborn and understood throughout the world Seven primary emotions Anger Disgust Fear Happiness Surprise Sadness Contempt Facial expressions that signal danger are most noticeable Another study indicated that when people were induced with a fear of social rejection they were able to more quickly spot the warm friendly faces Diagonal and angled body movements are usually associated with anger while rounded body movements are associated with happier emotions Nonconscious mimicry is the tendency to adopt the behaviors postures or mannerisms of interaction partners without conscious awareness or attention Mirror neurons are fired during this process Form of automatically activated behavior that creates affiliation and rapport among people 0 00 0 00 Social role is a cluster of socially defined expectations that individuals in a given situation are expected to fulfill Alice Eagly s social role theory is the theory that virtually all of the documented behavioral differences between males and females can be accounted for in terms of cultural stereotypes about gender and the resulting social roles that are taught to the young For women the most acceptable emotional style to publicly display is extravagant expressiveness which is an open style of experiencing and communicating emotion associated with nurturing and intimate relationships My self is at your service and not seeking power For men the most acceptable emotional style to publicly display is manly emotion which telegraphs intense emotion under control I can control my emotion and my self and I can control the situation We tend to focus more on negative aspects of people because they are more distinctive Gossip has an adaptive value we are more likely to pay attention to people if we have been told they are dangerous or unpleasant We are not born liars but have the skills to do so effectively by age four or five When judging other people s selfpresentations we pay attention to two different types of social stimuli Given expressions Nonverbal leakage Nonverbal indicators are more influential than those which are given Verbal Symptoms of Lying Symptoms Likely Causes Shorter answers to questions The cognitive burden of concealing the truth interferes with the generation of smooth Stories make less sense conversation Slower speech filled with pauses and other sentence hesitations Slight rise in voice pitch and vocal tension Activation of the sympathetic nervous system Less use of firstperson singular pronouns Psychological attempt to dissociate oneself O O DO 0000 COO 0000 O O O O OO Sounds less involved in what they are saying from the lie More use of negative emotion words Feelings of guilt trigger negative emotions Solomon Asch 1946 Studied Gestalt psychology the whole is greater than the sum of its pansh Central traits are traits that exert a disproportionate influence on people s overall impressions causing them to assume the presence of other traits Peripheral traits less important traits Implicit personality theories are a type of schema people use to organize and make sense of which personality traits and behaviors go together Passed on from generation and based on personal experiences and cultural beliefs More often used by people who believe that personality consists of fixed static traits rather than those who believe that personality is dynamic and changing Suggests that there is an individual aspect of use of these theories Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek information that supports our beliefs while ignoring disconfirming information Barrier to social judgement Key Concepts First impressions are often based on nonverbal behavior We reliably identify seven primary emotions anger disgust fear surprise contempt and sadness Nonconscious mimicry is automatically activated and it fosters affiliation and rapport Women and men differ in expressing and detecting emotional states When forming impressions we give more weight to negative information than to positive information Detecting deception in others is very difficult but there are some useful cues Central traits exert more influence in personality impressions than peripheral traits lmplicit personality theories operate on the principle of evaluative consistency Confirmation bias occurs when we seek information that verifies our beliefs Fritz Heider 1958 naive psychology Attribution is the process by which people use information to make inferences about the causes of behavior or events People are motivated by two primary needs the need to form a coherent view of the world and a need to gain control of the environment The Locus of Causality Heider Internal attribution is an attribution that locates the cause of an event to factors internal to the person such as personality traits moods attitudes ability or effort External attribution is an attribution that locates the cause of an event to factors external to the person such as luck or other people or the situation People also try to determine whether causes are stable permanent and lasting or unstable Some causes are dispositional stable See Table 42 on page 138 IIIO O O O O O O O 000 O CO The locus stability and controllability aspects are primary dimensions used in explaining events Correspondence inference Jones amp Davis 1965 is an inference that the action of an actor corresponds to or is indicative of a stable personal characteristic People have a general tendency to infer dispositional attributes of others because it can better help to predict their future behavior Logical rules of thumb that people use to infer personal characteristics from behavior Social desirability of behavior people are MORE likely to make dispositional attributions about behavior that is socially undesirable than about behavior that is socially desirable Choice aspect actions of choice are more indicative of true personal characteristics more than those which are coerced Noncommon effects tell us more about a person than behaviors which produce common effects Covariation principle Kelley1967 is a principle of attribution theory stating that for something to be the cause of a particular behavior it must be present when the behavior occurs and absent when it does not occur Discounting principle is a principle of attribution theory stating that whenever there are several possible causal explanations for a particular event people tend to be much less likely to attribute the effect to any particular case In assessing covariation Kelley relied on three kinds of information Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness Fundamental attribution error correspondence bias is the tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional causes and underestimate the impact of situational causes on other people s behavior Perceptual salience can affect this Has negative societal consequences Example rape victims we are less sympathetic to them The actorobserver effect is the tendency for people to attribute their own behavior to external causes but that of others to internal factors People are more likely to take responsibility for events that occurred years ago rather than recen y People assume that personality traits will override any situational factors resulting in people being overly optimistic in their planning and expectations Dualprocess models of attribution are theories of attribution that propose that people initially engage in a relatively automatic and simple attributional assessment but then later consciously correct this attribution with more deliberate and effortful thinking Key Concepts Locus of causality internal or external is the most important judgement in making attributions Correspondent inference theory states we use rules when inferring whether a target person s action corresponds to a stable personality characteristic Social desirability choice noncommon effects The covariation model explains attributions derived from multiple observations O I IO 0 The information used in assessing covariation involves consensus consistency and distinctiveness The attribution process is characterized by cognitive biases that cause judgemental errors The fundamental attribution error is the tendency to make internal versus external attributions and is more common in individualist cultures than in collectivist cultures The actorobserver effect is the tendency to make external attributions for our own behavior but internal attributions for others The attribution process involves both automatic and deliberate thinking and the more deliberate and effortful thinking mat correct for some of our attributional biases
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'