History 265-Precolonial African Civilization
History 265-Precolonial African Civilization HIS 265
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devonte McLaurin on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 265 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Adedze in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see African Civilization in History at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
History 265 Fall Semester 2015 TR 11001215 SCH 204 Instructor Agbenyega Adedze Of ce 315 Schroeder Of ce Hours 830930 on TR or by appointment Tel 4388367 Email adedzeilstuedu Precolonial AfricaTechnological and Cultural Traditions Tentative Course Outline and Study Guide Welcome to History 265 which I hope you will enjoy and find stimulating This course will focus on the cultural history of Africa Although the themes discussed will be placed in a chronological order the course will be taught from multidisciplinary perspectives with emphasis on evaluating different sources archaeology oral tradition historical linguistics photographs art etc of information rather than in providing a comprehensive chronological survey The main themes to be considered are the nature of early human society the origins of agriculture and its social and economic effects the rise of complex societies and the growth and development of long distance trade and states in Africa Each week there will be two seventyfive minutes lecture discussion periods Rather than leaving all the discussion at the end the period will consist of lecture divided by a variety of interactive exercises Assignments The course requirements include two exams 40 which will consist of essays previously handed out in class I will divide the class into six groups with specific research topics for group presentations 20 Out of the presentations each student will write a tenpage doublespaced term paper 20 Attendance and class participation will account for the final 20 of the grade Required Texts Connah G African Civilizations Cambridge Cambridge University Press Garlake P Early Art and Architecture of Africa Oxford University Press Class Rules 1 No eating drinking smoking talking or passing notes in class 2 Class attendance is mandatory You will lose one letter grade point if you miss classes twice without reasonable excuse 3 Arrive in class on time If you must be late or leave class early make sure you do not interrupt the class 4 No late papers will be accepted 5 No absences from exams unless for an extreme emergency that is documented 6 No taping of lectures will be allowed 7 No reading of the Vidette in class 8 If for any reason you disagree with the grade on any of your exams you must write a onepage single space argument to justify why you should have a better grade This must be submitted with a copy of your exams and I will either give you a written response or schedule a meeting with you 9 Students are expected to keep all work that is returned to them until they receive their final grades 10 Please turn off your mobile telephones Grading Scale A range 90100 B range 8089 C range 7079 D range 6069 F range 59 and below Schedule of Classes and Principal Topics Week One TAug 18 Methods and Sources for African History RAug 20 Archaeology Reading Connah Chapter 1 Handouts Week Two TAug 25 Oral Traditions RAug 27 Historical Linguistics Reading Handouts Week Three TSept 1 Art History Photographs and Postage Stamps RSept 3 Written Documents Reading Handouts Week Four TSept 8 1St Exam RSept 10 The Nature of Early Human Society in Africa Reading Handouts Garlake Chapter 2 Week Five TSept 15 Artistic Evidence of Early Human Society Sahara and S Africa RSept 17 Ancient Egyptian Civilization Reading Week Six TSept 22 RSept 24 Reading Week Seven TSept 29 ROct 1 Reading Week Eight TOct 6 ROct 8 Reading Week Nine TOct 13 ROct 15 Reading Week Ten TOct 20 ROct 22 Reading Week Eleven TOct 27 ROct 29 Reading Week Twelve TNov 3 RNov 5 Week Thirteen TNov 10 RNov 12 Week Fourteen TNov 17 RNov 19 Connah Chapters 2 amp 3 Garlake Chapters 2 amp 3 Kush Meroe Nubia and Ethiopia Complex Societies in Africa Importance of Natural Resources Connah Chapters 2 amp 3 Garlake 3 amp 4 Complex Societies in the Senegambia Megaliths and Tumuli J enneJ eno West Africa s First Town Connah Chapters 4 amp 5 Garlake Chapters 5 amp 6 2nd Exam Video New Gods Handouts Garlake Chapters 5 amp 6 The TransSaharan Trade Islam Literacy Culture Trade and Religion Group Projects Garlake Chapters 5 amp 6 Swahili Civilizations Group Projects Connah Chapter 5 6 amp 7 Garlake Chapter 8 Great Zimbabwe Group Projects Connah Chapters 5 6 amp 7 Garlake Chapter 7 Group Presentations Group Presentations Group Presentations Group Presentations Group Presentations Group Presentations Week Fifteen TNov 24 Thanksgiving Holidays RNov 26 Thanksgiving Holidays Week Sixteen TDec 1 Conclusion Term Paper Due No Late Papers Important Note You Will get more out of this course if you put as much into the course as you can This means doing your readings for each week and asking questions during lectures I enjoy answering questions during my lectures so do not hesitate to shoot up your hand When necessary If there is something you do not understand please ask a question Other people perhaps have the same problem but may be too shy to ask a question so do yourself and your colleagues a favor and ask that question Make use of my of ce hours I am here to help you ARCHAEOLOGY AS A SOURCE OF AFRICAN HISTORY History 265 Lecture Guide 082015 Archaeology Settlement patterns Catchment areas Site hierarchies Artifacts Types of Archaeology Classical Archaeology Historical Archaeology Underwater Archaeology Prehistoric Archaeology Ethnoarchaeology Some basic terminology in Archaeology Artifacts Features Attributes Context Time Relative Chronology Seriation Crossdating Absolute dating Radio Carbon TreeRing Dating Dedronchronology Thermoluminescence ORAL TRADITION AS HISTORY History 265 Lecture Guide 082515 0 Oral Tradition 0 How messages are generated in Oral Tradition 1 Eyewitness accounts 2 Rumors or Hearsay 3 VisionsDreams and Hallucinations 0 Oral Tradition is an expression of experience 1 Personal Reminiscence 2 Commentaries 3 Verbal Act 0 Limitations of Oral Tradition 1 Chronology 2 Interpretation 3 Memory THE PEOPLE AND LANGUAGES OF AFRICA History 265 Lecture Guide 082715 Linguistics Lexicostatistics Phonology Loanwords OAFROASIATIC Region Vegetation Archaeological Evidence Social Organization Religion Music 0 NILOSAHARAN Region Vegetation Archaeological Evidence Religion Music 0 NIGERCONGO Region Vegetation Archaeological Evidence Social Organization Music Religion 0 KHOISAN Region Vegetation Archaeological Evidence Social Organization Music Religion History 265 Lecture Guide 090115 African Art Where does it come from When was it made How was it made Is it what it pretends to be Is it unique in its general form What was it used for What did it mean How does it fit into the whole artistic production of Africa and elsewhere Who made it For whom Limitations Interpretation Context Chronology PHOTOGRAPHS AS MATERIALS FOR AFRICAN HISTORY History 265 Lecture Guide 090115 0 Camera obscura 0 Louis Daguerre 0 Methodological Considerations 1 History of Photography 2 Comparison of photos With other images 3 Intentions of photographer and use of image 4 Study subjects of the photographic collection 5 Review related historical evidence 0 Sources for historical photographs on Africa Colonial archives Missionary archives TravelersExplorers AnthropologistsEthnographers Traders Colonial Officials WRITTEN SOURCES FOR AFRICAN HISTORY History 265 Lecture Guide 090315 Narratives Archival North Africa Arabic Ottoman Archives Local histories European Travelers Ethiopia Ge39ez Historical records religious documents etc Poetry and legends Archives of Russians Armenians etc Other parts of Africa Travelers missionaries explorers External Sources European Arab Internal Narrative Sources Arabic Tarikh Chroniclesetc European Languages Local languages With Latin alphabet Africans Writing in European Languages William Amo Olaudah Equano Ignatius Sancho AfricanAmerican Edward Blyden James Africanus Horton 1St Generation of African Historians Senegal Abbe Boilat Ghana C S Reindorf Nigeria Samuel Johnson Some limitation of Written Documents Translations Bias Outsider39s Perspectives The Nature of Early Human Society and Language Groups in Africa History 265 Lecture Guide 091015 0 Aspects of Human Evolution People have different beliefs on Where they came from Millions of years ago there were ancient skeletal remains of kind from Asia and Africa There is a circulating statement that all humans originate from Africa 0 PongidsApes HominidsHumans Evidence in Africa and Asia Skeletal remains of hominids in Africa are our ancestors Our ancestors were bipedal walking on two feet 0 Main features of Humaness Bipedalism walking on ALL two feet Manipulative HandsLimbs that were used to do creative things Toolsit has been easier to use tools with only 2 feet tools made of stone crude choppers axes blades points over millions of years Group Activitylived in the rainforest walked in the savannah grassland lived in groups in rock shelters or caves the myth was that they had excellent communication Speechthere was a myth that people who lived in group spoke well with each other and whatnot Sexual Dimorphisma difference between male and female hominids the features of the man are different from the features of the woman Food Sharing abundance of skeletal remains of animals that humans killed for food bone marrow was desired there are some days when people get food and other days when people don39t get food food is shared with the rest of the group in a gathering at the base camp labor is based on gender woman is nurturing the baby while man goes out and obtains food then brings it back to the family 0 Why we believe Africa is the home of humanity Large primate pool for evolutionearly hominids belong to this pool Full evolutionary pictureAfrica is the only place with that Environmental factorsWarm tropical climate hominids are tropical animals and they gravitate toward warm weather there was never an Ice Age in Africa the rainforest was suitable for hominids unlike other places there is an abundance of archaeological evidence that is overwhelming and unmatched Archaeological evidenceskeletal remains stone tools rock shelter caves footprints more than anywhere else in the world Marry and Louis LeakeyTitle of book They Came Before Adam Genetic Evidence The biblical illusionAll modern humans descended from one woman in Africa they decided to call her the African Eve Biologists assign all humans to one human race in biology Sociologists devise different races through social construction 0 Where in Africa Southern Africa East AfricaRift Valleyhighest mountains deepest lakes most fertile soil and home of all humanity Three important countries Ethiopia Kenya Tanzania Kilimanjaro 0 Genealogy of Modern Humans from Africa 1 Ardipithecus ramidus Kenya 44m 2Australopithecus anamensis Kenya 42m 3 A africanus South Africa 323m 4 A aethiopicus Ethiopia 2823m 5 A garhi Ethiopia 25m 6 A boisei Tanzania 14m 7 A robustus South Africa 1915m 8 Homo rudolfensis Kenya 2418m 9 H habilis Tanzania 1916 10 H ergaster Kenya 1715m 11 H erectus Kenya 17m 12 Homo sapiens East North and South Im100000 yrs Artistic Evidence of Early Human Society History 265 Lecture Guide 091515 New species called Homo Naledi Se Sotho means stop Main areas of Rock Art in Africa Northern part and southern part North Africa Sahara Desert Maghreb TassiliMountain that people perform art on and draw on Central East and West Africa Numerous small sites Southern Africa Khoikhoi San Namibia South Africa Southern and Southwestern Cape Transvaal Drakensberg Mountains Botswana Zimbabwe Lesotho Swaziland Types of Art Portableobjects that you can carry around ostrich egg shells NonRepresentationalrock shelters hills mountains etc where you don39t know what the art is Representational What is represented in this Art Naturalistic representations of humans and animals Schematic or geometric designs It is believed that rock art has something to deal with alien communication Rock art has something to do with the human brain the brain is stimulated and in uenced differently there is a presence of light and phosphenes interacting Figures half human or half animal Therianthropes Trance healercertain animals in uence the lives of humans individual that falls into a trance and heals the community with formed rituals in the process he or she imitates a specific animal human behaving like an animal Importance of Rock Art in African History Record of past Lifestyle of a people Environment Flora and Fauna Artistic achievements3D has been made for tens of thousands of years and beyond ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION History 265 Lecture Guide 091715 0 Old Kingdom 3100 2040 BC Formative Era Mediterranean Sea EgyptNortheastern Africa the northern part ows through the Sudanese desert and ends in a large delta 1 2 891quot Developments in medicine science architecture writing astronomy geometry and more Images of copper tools gold glass sand much of Egypt was very agricultural First major monument was built by Djoser It is called the step pyramid This was done at a place called Saqqarah 60 meters high It was the world39s largest monument ever It was made from wide limestone It still stands today Pyramid of Giza 3 million stone blocks each weighing 25 tons Took 20 years to construct fully Egyptians were Gods Menes Namar Memphis Archaeological Evidence Djoser Step Pyramid 0 Middle Kingdom 20401570 BC There was a drought 0 New Kingdom Period of Instability Mentuhotep IIbrought stability and control to the kingdom despite the rebellion quickly realized that he had to look elsewhere trade expeditions to places like South Nubia Libya and Syria Also expeditions spanned across the Red Sea Amenemhetnoticed that many cities were destroyed and in ruin He decided to build major fortresses around the cities He also established a system of coregency which is a monarchial position held by only one person ruler king queen prince princess etc Hyksos conquered Egypt and ruled Egyptians That ended the period of the middle kingdom 1570 330 BC Ahmhosedrove the Hyksos away from Egypt reestablished the pharaohs Thutmose IIstrategist Babylon Assyria Hittites paid tribute to Egypt further extended commercial trades to Greek islands Coete Phoenicia Tutakhamenpharaoh who had powerful advisers Ramses IIwicked ruler this transitioned to the downfall of Egypt Downfall of EgyptGreeks conquered Persians Romans conquered Greeks Ottoman Empire conquered Before the British there was the French Napoleon made an expedition to Africa Europeans stole certain inventions and monuments from Africa Old Egyptian New Egyptian and Greek Champollion 0 Egyptian Art Religion and Political Organization ReligionThe people of Egypt are deeply religious There are Gods and spirits everywhere and in everything Gods have human characteristics They have good parts and bad parts Some are good Gods and some are evil Gods Egyptians believed that if anything bad happens to someone there will be bad spirits They did not leave anything to chance Divine KingshipRulers are gods so there are divine rulers the father and the mother of the nation the ruler has divine and spiritual powers as well as political authority When Egyptian rulers die they move to a higher realm of existence as a God Rulers spend their lives preparing for afterlife They accumulate as much resources and wealth as possible Life after dead is so important They use the best resources and whatnot Pyramids Mummification necrosis the body is taken and washed The brain and other internal organs are removed with the exception of the kidney and the heart The kidney represents the Nile The body is being cleansed The heart represents the emotions and is meant to be retained in the body The body is stuffed with sand and straw Salt called Natron dries the body 40 days After that they wash the body again and use oils and spices Then they paint it and put a coat of resin Then they would wrap it in linen or cloth and enclose it in a coffin then bring it to the tomb Life after death means that someone revives and lives again Someone becomes young again and forever You revive always If you are a pharaoh then they have to hide you All the wealth accumulated is concealed There might be a mummy head in Bloomington Hieroglyphs writing system of Egyptians located west of the river Nile located in major cities natural barriers deterred foreign people and invaders from stealing pyramids and tombs There were things that were looted Some Egyptians even stole treasures to sell OTHER ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS Kush Meroe Nubia and Ethiopia History 265 Lecture Guide 092215 NUBIASouth of Egypt depended on the River Nile River Nile Nubian Corridormovement of people and goods Cataractssharp falls there are 6 Meroe major iron works center one of the largest in Africa Slags Impurities remaining after smell of iron oil wears off Napata capital of Kush Egyptian In uence Agriculture Irrigation Mixed Farming Seminomadic pastoralists Vegetables Cereals Animal Husbandry Fishing Technological Developments Stoneworks Fired bricks Mudbricks Metal works Pottery Textiles Woodworks Leatherworks Basketry Social Systems Absolute Monarchy DiVine Kingship Spiritual and Secular Power Specialist class of skilled craftsmen ETHIOPIA Ethiopian highlands 1000 2300 m Red Sea 3 Climatic Types Temperate SubTropical Tropical Wet Season June September Dry Season October February Agriculture Mixed Farming Crops Livestock Fishing Wild animals Periodic Famine Technological Developments Impressive Architecture Stelae Rock hewn churches palaces etc Spindle whorls stelase etc Social Systems Absolute Monarch Divine Ruler Queen of Sheba Functional Specialization PreAscumite Ascumite 1St century10th century AD MedievalPresentlOth centurypresent Tef and Ensete The root of the plant is important The root can be as big as 40 kg Very common Coffee Town in Ethiopia called Kafe Coffee ceremonies and rituals Chatstimulant They get high from chewing leaves There are exports traded to Kenya Multimillion dollar business Not illegal Britain is trying to ban it US also is trying to ban it Cattle goat sheep Muslims in Ethiopia kill sheep as a sacri ce to celebrate Abraham Fishing Trade wild animals across Mediterranean and Red Sea Sell elephants leopards giraffes zebras and other wild animals Famine Too much rain will cause ooding and erosion Water washes everything away Rock paintings wall paintings etc COMPLEX SOCIETIES IN AFRICA History 265 Lecture Guide 092415 0 Egyptian Myth Hamithic Hypothesis Hamites Caucasian Race Bible Noah Ham NegroHamithic 0 Islam What are the attributes of a complex society 1 Large Population 5000 2 Complex exchange relations With catchment area 3 Extensive Trade networks 4 Craft Specialization 5 Religious Shrine or Monument 6 Extensive public works 7 Foreigners quarters 8 Social and political hierarchy COMPLEX SOCIETIES IN THE SENEGAMBIAN REGION History 265 Lecture Guide 092915 Location West Africa River Senegal River Gambia Size 33000 sq km Number of sites 1624 Number of Monuments 16320 Megaliths Circles of laterite blocks each about 3m 825 stones in a circle about 10m in diameter Quarries With Vicinity quotYquot shaped stones North South axis Tumuli Low earth mounds 3396 Burials 34 of sites were burials sites 59 bodies found in a single circle 89 of indiViduals were over 15 years Grave goods Iron lances Beads Copper bracelets Ceramics Dates 17 110 BC 30 110 BC 6001100 AD Other archaeological eVidence Shell middens Iron slags Copper alloys Anklets Rings Importance of Megaliths of Senegambia 1 Refutes the idea of Egyptohamithic origin of complex societies in West Africa 2 Evidence of social stratification 3 Evidence of trade and contact With different polities JENNEJENO A WEST AFRICAN TOWN History 265 Lecture Guide 100115 The occupation sites of J enneJ eno four phases Phase MI The earliest settlement date to about 250 BC 300 AD 100 AD 12 ha 300 AD 25 ha Archaeological Evidence Iron ore Grinding Stone Stone beads imported Occupation Farmers Blacksmiths Potters Fishermen Pastoralists Agricultural Produce Fish meat sorghum millet and rice Phase III 300 800 AD 33 ha Archaeological Evidence In addition to those of phases III Copper Mauritania regions Gold BambukBure Phase IV 800 1400 AD 2 sq km City wall Archaeological evidence Glass beads Shaped pottery Islamic gold weights Decline of JenneJeno by 1300 AD THE TRANSSAHARAN TRADE History 265 Lecture Guide 101315 Trade North North Africa Sahara Desert Europe Mediterranean World West Africa Started 3rd and 4th centuries AD Peaked 14th and 15th centuries AD Reasons for the development of the trade 0 Commodities from the North Textiles silk velvet brass silver etc Commodities from West Africa Millet sorghum livestock kola nuts gum ivory gold etc 0 Introduction of camels 0 Arab conquest of North Africa 641708 AD 0 Political developments in West Africa 14th and 15th cent AD 0 Religion Islam 0 Local Traders Mande Dyula Hausa etc What was the impact of the TransSaharan Trade 0 Political 0 Wars of conquest 0 Increased wealth 0 Improvements in administration 0 World exposure 0 Growth in agriculture and mining 0 Specialization and urbanization 0 Spread of Islam and literacy THE SWAHILI CIVILIZATIONS History 265 Lecture Guide 102015 The Swahili Corridor East African coast 3000 km Northernmost Mogadishu Southernmost River Zambezi Lamu Archipelago Zanzibar Mafia Kilwa Comoro Islands etc Sources Roman Official Periplus of Erythraean Sea AD 100 Arab writers al Masudi El Idrisi Ibn Battuta Oral Traditions Kilwa Chronicles Chronicles of Lamu Indian Ocean Trade Swahili corridor resources Ivory tortoiseshells ambergris fruits pomegranates gold millet etc India China and Mediterranean resources Cloth grain oils spices stoneware etc Mode of Trade Middlemen between inland Africa and China India and Mediterranean Maritime Trade Ocean going dhows Trade Winds Seasonal Monsoon winds Dec Mar northeasterly monsoon April Nov southwesterly monsoon Social Organization Small Village communities City states Highly urbanized Stone houses Pop Over 10000 in some cities Literate Arabic Islam Nobles Freemen and Slaves Craft Specialization Stone houses Boat Building Weaving Salt making Carving Bead making Decline of Swahili Civilization with the arrival of the Portuguese in late 15th century GREAT ZIMBABWE History 265 Lecture Guide 1027 15 Period 12501450 Sources Archaeology Oral Tradition Portuguese Explorers and Traders Location River Limpopo southern boundary River Zambezi northern boundary Kalahari Desert western boundary Indian Ocean eastern boundary Zimbabwe Plateau 1000m above sea level Modern country of Zimbabwe Monuments of Great Zimbabwe Large stone ruins Single and multiple enclosures Dry stone walls Blocks of granite Soapstone carvings Carl Mauch 1st European to see ruins in 1871 Copy of Solomons temple in Moriah Queen of Sheba Not Indigenous nonAfrican Early Archaeological Research Factors that help the development of Great Environment Geologically igneous and metamorphic rocks granite and schists Savanna woodland scattered trees treeless grassy plains River systems Cool temperatures Agriculture Livestock goats sheep cattle wild game Staples sorghum millet beans squashes etc Minerals Gold iron copper tin clay granite soapstone Craft Specialization Weaving ironworks pottery carving goldsmiths etc Trade Indian Ocean trade Swahili corridor Import items chinaware glass beads etc Social Organization and Decline of Great Zimbabwe Social inequality stone structures complex organization of labor craft specialization girls used in mining etc Environmental degradation led to the fall of Great Zimbabwe