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# Chapter 1 Notes 110

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by dipen on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 110 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Vines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Pittsburgh.

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Date Created: 09/29/15

Chemistry 110 Dr Vines 9515 Chapter 1 Chemistry and Measurement Book Notes An Introduction to Chemistry gt 11 Modern Chemistry A Brief Glimpse gt 12 Experiment and Explanation 0 Experiment an observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained o If the regularity or relationship is fundamental and we can state it simply we call it a law A Law is a concise statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature An example is the law of conservation of mass which says that the mass or quantity of matter remains mm constant during any chemical change Tquot 39 quot 0 Once a scientist obtains the results he will then devise an l 7 quot quot 1 explanation to make sense of them and help predict future events 0 A hypothesis is a tentative not fully worked out explanation of some regularity of nature o If a hypothesis passes many tests it is then known as a theory 0 A Theory is a tested explanation of basic naturalphenomena 0 An example is the Molecular theory of gases the theory that all gases are composed of very small particles called molecules because it has withstood many tests it is always possible that further experiments will show the theories limits or someone will make a better one o The Scientific Method is the general process of advancing scientific knowledge through observation the framing of f laws hypotheses or theories gt 13 Law of Conservation of Mass 0 The 18th century was the rise of modern chemistry when chemists began to use the balance systematically as a tool in research 0 Balances measure the amountquantity of matter in a material or mass 0 Matter everything around us is whatever occupies space and can be perceived by our senses o The French chemist Antoine Lavoisier 17431794 was the first to use balances for weighing substances before and after chemical change 0 By doing this he soon realized the law of conservation of mass total mass remains constant during a chemical change or chemical reaction 0 Reactants Products 0 Mass vs Weight 0 Weight of an object is the force of gravity exerted on it which can change depending on location and is also proportional to the mass 0 The mass of an object is the same no matter where you measure it v39 I 39 39uluquot I 39 39 1 th wrlmm V wtmiiichLI LIL Lmum Vila ll39llll 1I 7l39 39 l r r r m 1211 11 an r gt 14 Matter Physical State and Chemical Constitution 0 Two principle ways of classifying matter by its physical state solid liquid or gas or by O 0 its chemical constitution element compound or mixture Common States of Matter Solids Liquids and Gases Physical Sate I Main characteristic of solids is their rigidity or fluidityif they can maintain shape I Main Characteristic of gases and liquids is their compressibility 0 Gas is easily compressible and liquid is not I Solid the form of matter characterized by rigidity a solid is relatively incompressible and has fixed shape and volume I Liquid the form of matter that is a relatively incompressible fluid a liquid has a fixed volume but no fixed shape I Gas the form of matter that is an easily compressible fluid a given quantity of gas will fit into a container of almost any size and shape Elements Compounds and Mixtures Chemical Constitutions I Physical Change is a change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity I Distillation is one way to separate an easily vaporized liquid from another substance I Liquid is placed in a condenser and then water vapor forms and is collected in another flask called a receiver Physical Measurements gt 15 Measurement and Significant Figures 0 Quantitative Observations 0 Include 3 pieces of Information I Magnitude I Unit I Uncertainty Measurements are not numbers I Numbers are obtained by counting or by definition measurements are obtained by comparing an object with a fixed standard of measurement called a unit I Numbers are exact measurements are inexact Precision is the closeness of the set of values obtained from identical measurements of a quantity Accuracy is the closeness of a single measurement to its true value Significant Figures those digits in a measured number that include all certain digits plus a final digit having some uncertainty Number of significant figures the number of digits reported for the value of a measured or calculated quantity indicating the precision of the value In order to count the number of significant figures in a given measured quantity you observe the following rules 1 All nonzero digits are significant 2 All zeros between nonzero digits are significant 3 All zeros to the right of the decimal and to the right of the last nonzero digit are significant 4 All zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are significant 5 Zeros to the right of the first nonzero digit and to the left of the decimal may or may not be significant They must be written in scientific notation 6 Some number have infinite significant figures or are exact numbers 0 Significant Figures in Calculations 1 Multiplication and Division Give as many significant figures in the answer as there are in the measurement with the least number of significant figures 2 Addition and subtraction Give the same number of decimal places in the answer as there are in the measurement with the least number of decimal places 0 Exact Numbers I Exact Numbersis a number that arises when you count items or sometimes when you define a unit 391 Ex 30 grams x 9 27 grams 0 Rounding I Rounding is the procedure of dropping nonsignificant digits in a calculation result and adjusting the last digit reported 391 If this digit is 5 or greater add 1 to the last digit to be retained and drop all digits farther to the right Thus rounding 12151 to three significant figures gives 122 391 If this digit is less than 5 simply drop it and all digits farther to the right Rounding 12143 to three significant figures gives 121 gt 16 SI Units 0 Before they came up with a universal standard for units now known as the metric system each country adopted its own units for measure meant until science became more quantitative in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and scientists found that a lack of standard units was a problem 0 SI Base Units and SI Prefixes I International System of Unitsor Sl a particular choice of metric units that was adopted by the General Conference of Weights and Measure in 1960 0 Length Mass and Time I Meter m SI base unit of length 391 By combining it with a prefix you get a unit of appropriate size of any length of measurement 1 nm10quot9m 391 Angstrom a nonSI unit of length which equals 10quot10 m I Kilogram kg is the SI base unit of mass 391 1 kg 22 lbs 1 Its unusual because it contains a prefix in its name and when forming other SI mass units prefixes are added to the word gram I Second s is the SI base unit for time 391 Prefixes such as milli micro nano and pico help you create units appropriate for measuring very rapid events v Time required for fastest chemical process is about a pico second 0 Temperature I a thermometer is a device for measuring temperature I The Celsius scale formerly the centigrade scale is the temperature scale in general scientific use I On this scale freezing point of water and boiling point of water I Kelvin K is the SI base unit of temperature a unit on an absolute temperature scale where theoretically the lowest temperature that can be obtained is zero 1 E I Celsius and Kelvin scales have equal size units thus TE in x T 21315 19 I To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius 5 quot I To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit Ft 2 3 it SET 39l 4 L39 gt 17 Derived Units 0 SI Derived Unit which is combination of SI base units ex Speed distance time 0 Volume I Volume is defined as length cubed mquot3 I That unit is too large for lab work se we use either decimeter dmquot3 or cubic centimeter cm 3 I Liter L a unit of volume equal to a cubic decimeter approximately one quart1000mL 1 L 1 L 1 dmquot3 1mL1cmquot3 0 Density m I Density mass per unit volume II TI I Density is a physical property I Helps us determine whether a substance is pure gt 18 Units and Dimensional Analysis FactorLabel Method 0 Dimensional analysis or the factorlabel method is the method of calculation in which one carries along the units for quantities 0 Conversion Factor a factor equal to 1 that converts a quantity expressed in one unit to a quantity expressed in another unit

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