America 1800, Russia, and US and Japanese imperialism
America 1800, Russia, and US and Japanese imperialism HIST 202 - 01
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Date Created: 09/29/15
III The Americas 18005 Political Developments A Westward Expansion of the US a Britain ceded territories between Appalachian Mountains and Mississippi River b France s Napoleon Bonaparte sells Louisiana Territory 1803 c Meriwether Lewis and William Clark map the territory 18041806 d Settlers move west i quotManifest destiny to occupy all lands between Atlantic and Pacific First expressed in 1845 that the expansion of white Americans across the continent was inevitable and ordained by God B Conflict with Indigenous Peoples a Native peoples resist incursions onto ancestral lands and traditional hunting grounds i Formed alliances also sought British support in Canada b US Indian Removal Act of 1830 drives natives into quotIndian Territory Reservations in Oklahoma i Seminoles forces to march some escape to Florida ii Cherokees migrate 800 miles the Trail of Tears 18381839 thousands die en route C Armed Conflict a Sioux Comanche Pawnee and Apache peoples resist i 1876 La kota Sioux destroy army of Colonel George Armstrong Custer battle of Little Big Horn Montana b US forces have superior firepower including cannons and Gatling machine gun c 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee Creek i Nervous US cavalry slaughters men women and children ii Ghost Dance D The Mexica nAmerican War 18451848 a Mexico then included Texas California New Mexico b Texas influenced by many US settlers declares independence from Mexico in 1836 i Accepted into Union in 1845 despite Mexican protest c Conflict ensues Mexico forced to cede territory in Treaty oquadalupe Hidalgo 1848 in exchange for 15 million dollars E Sectional Conflict a Major issue slavery to be allowed in new territories Tobacco cultivation on decline but cotton industry spurs new demand for slaves US slave population rises from 50000 in 1770 to 2 million in 1820 Missouri Compromise 1820 attempts to strike balance between slave and free states 995quot F Roots of the US Civil War 18611865 a Abraham Lincoln elected president 1860 i Committed to antislavery position b Issue of slavery highlighted principle of states rights scope of federal authority c Eleven southern states withdraw from Union 18601861 i Southern economy dependent on cotton as cash crop ii Northern economy developing industrialization wage earners G The Emancipation Proclamation a First two yea rs of war inconclusive b 1863 Lincoln signs Emancipation Proclamation makes abolition of slavery explicit goal of the war c Battle of Gettysburg 1863 turns tide against south d North wins after four yea rs of bloody conflict H Canada Independence Without War a Regional divisions in Canadian society but independence achieved without war i British and French Canadians ii French territories ceded after Seven Yea rs War 17561763 iii Concessions made to large French population 1 Recognition of Raman Catholic church French law code b After 1781 British population in Ontario joined by loyalists fleeing US War of independence The War of 1812 a US declares war on Britain over encroachments during Napoleonic wars i Impressment b Britishforces in Canada repel US attacks Social tensions between French and English populations remain d British wish to avoid repeat of US war of independence gradually extend home rule between 1840 and 1867 A American Economic Development a California gold rush of 1845 also Canadian gold rushes attract migrants b Others migrate to factories railroads construction states plantations support services c Some especially Italians migrate and return several times B Economic Expansion a British capital spurs vast expansion of US industry b Massive expansion of rail system C i 31000 miles before 1861 almost all in eastern US ii 200000 miles by 1900 coast to coast iii Necessitates division of US into four time zones Massive expansion of economy 18701900 i Electrification ii Trade Union C Inventing Technology The Electric Age a d Technology played major role in transforming factory work and increasing the scale of production as steam and later electricity freed manufacturers from dependence on water power In the late 19th century the United States became a technological innovator Between 1870 and 1900 900000 patents had been issued in the United States Thomas Edison s success stimulated research and development in Europe and the United States Invention gave the United States a commanding technological lead A Goals of the Knights of Labor for skilled and unskilled a 39P39Q i thPPP39 Eighthour workday Worker s cooperatives Workersowned factories Abolition of child and prison labor Increased circulation of greenbacks Equal pay for men and women Safety codes in the workplace Prohibition of contract foreign labor Abolition of the National Bank B American Federation of Labor qurhrbslosr Catered to skilled workers Represented workers in matters of national legislation Maintained a national strike fund Eva ngelized the ca use of unionism Prevention disputes among the many craft unions Mediated disputes between management and labor Pushed for closed shops C Canadian Prosperity a British investments in Canada b Policy of economic development the National Policy i Attract migrants promote startup industries build transportation infrastructure c US also invests in Canada owning 30 of Canadian industry by 1918 D Latin American Dependence a Limited foreign investment i Small size of Latin American markets b Interest in exploiting raw materials i Argentina beef c Limited industrializing initiatives foiled by government corruption d Yet significant exportdriven rise in economy E Societies in the United States a US population most culturally diverse in the hemisphere b Indigenous peoples subject to formal policy of forced assimilation i Destruction of Buffalobased economies ii Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 shifts policies awayfrom collective tribal reservations iii Native children taken from families enrolled in whitecontrolled boarding schools F Canadian Cultural Contrasts a British and French each view selves as principal founding peoples of Canada principal social tensions between them i Also small populations of slaves before abolished in 1833 freed slaves runaways Chinese migrants b Louis Riel 18441885 leads natives and metis mixedrace in rebellion in western Canada i Defeated Riel sentinto exile attempts another rebellion in 1885 executed G Diversityin Latin America a Complex social structure based on racial background i Europeans natives African slaves and combinations thereof Increasing migration in nineteenth century from Asia Some conflicts between cosmopolitan cities and rural areas Symbol of rural culture the gaucho cowboy Pol Republics constitutions Caudillos regional leaders 999 Unit 2Themes 0 50100 years behind 0 Comparing back to Unit 1 European model 5 characteristics 0 Russiafeudal system 0 Autocraticabsoute monarchy o Serfssaves o Enlightenment o Imperialism Imperial Russia A Group Questions a What isa tsar i A Russian ruler king Slavic nations b What is the feudalSystem i Tsar church nobles peasants serfs pyramid c Where is Russia geographically What continents is it on i Part of Europe central Asia and east Asia B The Russian Empire Under Pressure a Russia a multiethnic multiannual and multicultural empire i Only approximately halfspeak Russian observe Russian orthodox Christianity Romanov tsars rule autocraticempire Powerful class of nobles exempt from taxation military duty Exploitative serfdom e Russia is 50100 years behind W Europe C Group Questions a What war did Russia fight in when attempting to control the Caucasus region i Caucasus b Who was Russia fighting in that war i Britain France Ottoman Empire c How many years behind W Europe is Russia i 50100 years behind D The Crimean War 18531856 a Russian expansion into Caucasus in largerattempt to establish control overweakening Ottoman empire 903 Threatens to upset balance of power Europeans become involved Russia driven back from Crimea in humiliating defeat Russian weakness lack western technology and strategy e Protectorate Russia is the quotprotectorquot ofall Slavic people E Group Question a What is the difference between a serfand a peasant i The peasant has more freedom because the serfs have to work forthe people who work the land 906 ii Equivalent ofa slave F Reform Emancipation ofthe Serfs a Serfdom source of rural instability and peasant revolt b Tsar Alexanderll emancipates serfs in 1861 without alleviating poverty land hunger i Forced to pay for lands they had farmed forgenerations c Limited attempts to reform administration small scale representative government i Network of elected district assemblies called zemstvos G Industrialization in Russia a Massive railroad construction i TransSiberian railroad b Massive industrial discontent i Peasants uprooted from rural lifestyleto work for low wages long hours c Industrial izations fol lowed the framework of capitalism but differed in that the motivation ofdevelopment were political and militaristic Government to drive progress not individuals H Group Questions a What are some principles of socialism i Government controls and distributes money ii No market iii Government owns factors of production iv Education and healthcare but fora cost b What is anarchy i No government c What does it mean to be exiled i Thrown out ofthe country d What is censorship i The government tells everyone what they can say or write things that are thought to be freedom e What is nationalism i Being connected by common things such as culture religion language etc I Repression a Intelligentsia class spreads radical ideas for social change i University Students Socialists anarchists ii Terror tactics assassinations iii Attempt to connect with the mistrustful peasantry in 1870 s denounced and sentinto Siberian exile b Tsarist authorities turn to censorship secret pol ice c Nationalist sentiment grown in Baltic provinces Poland Ukraine Georgia and central Asia J Radicalization a 1881 radical People s Will movement assassinates TsarAlexanderII i Prompted widespread pogrom attacks on Jews ii Increased repression b NicholasII r 18941917 Romanov entersinto warwithJapan RussoJapanese War Humiliating defeat exposes government weakness Social discontent boils over in revolution of 1905 The Duma was Russia sfirst parliamentary institution and was created by the tsar to end the revolution US and Japanese Imperialism FromimperializedtoConquerors A US Imperialism a PresidentJames Monroe warns Europeans not to engage in imperialism in western hemisphere1823 i The Monroe Doctrine all Americansa US Protectorate Kishlansky5469 b 1867 purchased Alaska from Russia 1875 established protectorate indirect rule over Hawaii i Locals overthrow queen in 1893 persuade US to acquire islands in 1898 B SpanishCubanAmericanWar18981899 a US declares war in Spain afterbattleship Maine sunk in Havana harbor 1898 and won i Takes possessions of Cuba Puerto Rico Guam Philippines ii US intervenes in otherCaribbean Central American lands occupies Dominican Republic Nicaragua Honduras Haiti to prevent rebellion and protect business interests b Filipinos revolt against Spanish rule later against US rule C The Panama Canal a PresidentTheodore Roosevelt proimperialist expansion and supports insurrection against Columbia 1903 b Rebels win establish state of Panama US gains territory to build canal Panama Canal Zone d Roosevelt Corollary of Monroe Doctrine i US rightto intervene in domesticaffairs of other nationsifUS investments threatened D EarlyJapanese Expansion a Resentment over unequal treaties of 18605 b 18705 colonized northern region Hokkaido Kurile Islands southern Okinawa Ryukyu Islands as well c 1876 Japanese purchase warships form Britain dominate Korea d SinoJapanese war18941895 over Korea results inJapanese victory e RussoJapaneseWar19041905 also endsinJapanese victory E EconomicLegaciesofImperialism a Colonized states encouraged to exploit natural resources ratherthan build manufacturing centersnewimperialism b Encouraged dependency on imperial powerfor manufactured goods made from native raw product i Indian cotton c Introductionsofnewcrops i Tea in Ceylon F Colonial Conflict a Thousands of insurrections against colonial rule i Physically ii Boycott iii Organize political parties iv Publish anticolonial documents b quotScientificquot racism developed Eugenics i Combines with theories of Charles Darwin to form quotSocial Darwinism
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