Europe, America 1800, and Ottoman Empire
Europe, America 1800, and Ottoman Empire HIST 202 - 01
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan5294 on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 - 01 at University of Indianapolis taught by Emily Grayce Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see World History since 1700 in History at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Europe s Age of Nationalism VI VII Definitions a Conservatism support for the established order in church and state Monarchs landed nobles and church Favored gradual or organic change b Liberalism support for a representative government dominated by the propertied classes and minimal government interference in the economy smith is money Emergence of Ideologies a Edmund Burke i KishlanskiReflections on the French Revolution Monroe Doctrine a 1823no further colonization and intervention by European powers in the Americas Nations and Nationalism a Nation a type of community especially prominent in nineteenth century b Distinct from clan religious regional identities c Nationalismbased on shared language customs values historical experience i Sometimes common religion d Idea of nation has immediate relationship with political boundaries Types of Nationalism a Cultural Nationalism i Literature folklore music as expressions b Politicalnationalism i Movement for political independence of nation from other authorities ii Unification of national lands iii Giuseppe Mazzini 18051872 quotYoung Italyquot Nationalism and AntiSemitism a Nationalist ideologies distrustful of indigenous minorities b Pogromsviolent attacks on Jewish communities in Russian empire beginning 1881 c AntiSemitism rallying cry of many European nationalists d Debate on loyalty ofJews in European societies Zionism a Theodor Herzl journalist at Dreyfus trial b Observed intense mod antiSemitism concluded that Enlightenment and revolution could not solve this human ill c Worked to create refuge forJews by reestablishing Jewish state in Palestine i Zion synonymous with Jerusalem Vlll Xl d 1897 convened first World Zionist Organization Congress of Vienna 18141815 a Metternich b Austria c Conservative Key Principles Established at Vienna Balance of power Legitimacy to the throne restore heirs Compensation from France pay 700000000 francs Coalition forces to occupy France 35 yea rs Supported the belief that there is always an alternative to conflict Italian Unification MazziniCreated the concept of Unification GaribaldiMilitary force behind unification Pius IX Find where he fits Emmanuel IIFirst King CavourFirst prime minister Unification of Germany a Otto Von Bismarck prime minister advances Realpolitik quotthe politics of realityquot uses wars with neighbors to unify Germany Second Reich proclaimed in 1871 Holy Roman Emprire the first King Wilhelm I named emperor Kulturka mpf battle for civilization i AntiCatholic and Socialist ii Welfare state 0 50100 years behindEmpire 0 Compare to unit 1euro model 0 Enlightenment o Imperialism Russian Empire Ottoman Empire China Japan India The Ottoman Empire in Decline A Group Questions a Why was it difficult to rule the Ottoman Empire i It cover53 continents b What otherempire experiences similardifficulties i Russian Empire c What is nationalism i What brings people togetherie language culture race flag etc B Ottoman Empire a The Ottoman Empire isa multilingual multiethnicand multicultural empire b Many of the problems Russia faced due to size and multiplague the ottomans c One difference with Russia isthat Russia is still a country and the Ottoman Empire declines and disappears offthe map C Group Questions a Who is more powerful than the Ottomans i Russia and Austria b Who are the Janissary corps i Backbone to the imperial armed forces c How does military weakness lead to the collapse i Can t protect themselves from outside invasion d How many years behind was Russia from Western Europe i 50100 years D The Ottoman Empire in Decline a Ottoman empire had been a dominant military force but as now being defeated by Austrians Russians due to European advances in technology and strategy b Military has not kept with European advances c Elite Janissary Corps involved trying to overthrow the imperial ruler stopped training and didn t use the latest technology They we re out of control E Group Questions a What isa sultan i King Ruler b Who is trying to take poweraway from the rulerand will lead to the formation of new nations i SemiIndependent government and local notables F The Ottoman Empire in Decline Continue a Semiindependent local warlords use mercenaries slave armies to support sultan in return for imperial favor recognition of autonomy b Massive corruption misuse of tax revenues c All ofthe chaos from within leads to the Ottoman s decline G Group Question a What areas had the Empire lost i Egypt ii Greece iii Caucasus H Territorial Losses a Russia takes territories in Caucasus central Asia b Nationalists uprising drive Ottomans out of Balkans c Napoleon s unsuccessful attack on Egypt spurs local revolt against Ottomans under Muhammad Ali r 18051848 d British support Ottomans only to avoid possible Russian Expansion Group Questions a What problem did the Ottoman sface in trade i They ship out all natural resources and make othercountries build their suppHes ii They only imported downgraded material iii European trade had shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basin where the Ottomans has no presence at all b How would you describe their economicsituation i They got loans from othercountries and were unable to pay it back J Ottoman Economy Bypassed in trade and Europeans went directly to the sources in ChinaIndia Imports of cheap manufactured goods place stress on local artisans Exportde pendent Ottoman economy increasingly relies on foreign loans By 1882 they were unable to pay even interest on loans forced to accept foreign administration ofdebts They re going bankrupt Capitulations agreement entered into between the European power and the Ottomans Extraterritorial ity the right to exercisejurisdiction overtheir own citizens according to theirown laws K Group Questions a How does capitulation and extraterritoriality lead to even furtherforeign dependency and decline in power by the Ottomans i Allowed Britain to come in but didn t think ofthe consequences L Group Questions a What needs to be reformed in the Ottoman Empire i Limitingtaxation ii End corruption iii Increase agriculture b Who is goingto be the model forchange i European model goo9 Thf39D M Early Reforms a Attempts to reform taxation increase agricultural output and reduce corruption i Sultan Selim I r 17891807 remodeled army on European model ii Janissaries revolt kill new troops imprison sultan b Sultan Mahmud H r 18081839 attempts same hasJanissaries massacred i Also reforms schools taxation builds telegraph postal service N Group Questions a What isa separatist i Beingindependentdistancingoneself b What era was the most radical i Tanzimat O Tanzimat quotreorganizationquot Era 18391876 a Peace of reform accelerated b New law codes based on the French model c Changes threatened the empire s Islam foundations Jews and Christians would get legal equality P Young Ottomans pg 710712 a Radical Young Ottomans wanted a constitutional government individual freedom local autonomy and political decentralization b These goals would weaken the empire even more and move it towards individual countries Q Group Questions a What isa dissident i A person who opposes official policy b What is bureaucracy i A system of government in which most ofthe important decision are made by state officials ratherthan by elected representatives R The Young Turk Era a Radical dissident bureaucrats stage a coup install Abdul Hamid II as Sultan r 1876 1909 i Constitution representative government adopted but suspended within the year many liberals exiled executed b Dissidents were call the YoungTurk Party i Founded by Ottomans in exile in ParisEuropean educationenlightenment ideaslearned ii Calledforrapidsecularreforms iii Restore parliament iv Place Mehmed V Rashid on the throne 5 Young Turk Rule a Called for universal suffrage equality before the law freedom of religion free public education secularization ofthe state and emancipation ofwomen i Turkish made official language despite large numbers ofArabicand Slavic language speakers b Could not do enough to stop the decline The Americas 18005 Society Economy Culture I American Economic Development a California gold rush of 1845 also Canadian gold rushes attract migrants b Other migrate to factories railroad construction sites plantations support C service Some especially Italians migrate and return several times Economic Expansion a British capital spurs vast expansion of US industry b Massive expansion of rail system C i 31000 miles before 1861 almost all in eastern US ii 200000 miles by 1900 coast to coast iii Necessitates division of US into four time zones Massive expansion of economy 18701900 i Electrification ii Trade unions Goals of the Knights of Labor a For Skilled and Unskilled workers i Eighthour workday ii Worker s cooperatives iii Workerowned factories iv Abolition of child and prison labor v Increased circulation of greenbacks vi Equal pay for men and women vii Safety codes in the workplace viii Prohibition of contract foreign labor ix Abolition of the National Bank IV American Federation of Labor Thesis g Catered to the skilled workers Represented workers in matters of national legislation Maintained a national strike fund Eva ngelized the ca use of unionism Prevented disputes among the many craft unions Mediated disputes between management and labor Pushed for closed shops V Canadian Prosperity a b British investments in Canada Policy of economic development the National Party i Attract migrants promote startup industries build transportation infrastructure c US also invests in Canada owning 30 of Canadian industry by 1918 VI Latin American Dependence a Limited foreign investment i Small size of Latin American markets b Interest in exploiting raw materials i Argentina beef c Limited industrializing initiatives foiled by government corruption d Yet significant exportdriven rise in economy VII Societies in the United States a US population most culturally diverse in the hemisphere b Indigenous peoples subject to formal policy of forced assimilation i Destruction of Buffalobased economies ii Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 shifts policies awayfrom collective tribal reservations iii Native children taken from families enrolled in whitecontrolled boarding schools VIII Freed Slaves a Slavery ended but social discrimination remains b Northern armies occupy southern states forced social program of Reconstruction 18671877 c Violent backlash follows their departure d Landpoor freed slaves forced to work as sha recroppers e Violence and intimidation continue IX Canadian Cultural Contrasts a British and French each view selves as principal founding peoples of Canada principal social tensions between them b Louis Riel leads natives and m tis mixedrace in rebellion in western Canada X Diversityin Latin America a Some conflicts between cosmopolitan cities and rural areas b Symbol of rural culture the gaucho cowboy XI