China, Japan, India, and Africa
China, Japan, India, and Africa HIST 202 - 01
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan5294 on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 - 01 at University of Indianapolis taught by Emily Grayce Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see World History since 1700 in History at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
50100 Euro model Enlightenment Imperialism Imperial China Era of Dynasties I Kishlansky Dowsing Chine a b C goom e Uneq a b IV c d Page 419 Letter from China 1683 Page 473 The HaiLu Culture ImperialSpheres of In uence Isolation Sophistication Age of Exploration Contact Based on TradeSilk Road se Restrictions on British Trade Since 1759 European commercial presence limited to port of Guangzhou Foreign merchants forced to deal solely with licensed Chinese rms called cohongs currency of trade silver bullion British East India Company heavily involved in opium trade i Opium grown in India sold in China for silver silver used to buy other Chinese products The Opium Trade Illegal but poor enforcement Increasing trade and social ills evident by late 18305 Chinese move to enforce ban British agents engage in military retaliation the Opium War18391842 British naval forces easily defeat Chinese ual Treaties Capitulations China forced into a series of disadvantageous treaties Hong Kong ceded to British in Treaty of Nanjing 1842 ports opened to British traders Extraterritorial status to British subjects Later other countries conclude similar treaties V VI VII VIII IX The Taiping Rebellion 18501864 a b C d Largescale rebellions in later nineteenth century re ect poverty discontent of Chinese peasantry Population rises 50 between 18001900 but land under cultivation remains static Nian rebellion 18511868 Muslim rebellion 18551873 Tugan rebellion 18621878 Taiping rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan schoolteacher called for destruction of Qing dynasty Taiping Defeat a b c Nanjing captured in 1858 made into capital Attack on Beijing with force of 1 million but turned back Imperial army unable to contain Taigings so regional armies created with Manchu soldiers and out tted with European weaponry Hong commits suicide in 1864 Nanjing recaptured i 100000 Taipings massacred ii Claimed 2030 million lives agriculture declined and people without enough to eat The SelfStrengthening Movement 18601895 a b c d e High point in 1860518705 Slogan quotChinese learning at the base Western learning for usequot Blend of Chinese cultural tradition with European industrial technology i Shipyards railroads academies Change to Chinese economy and society super cial Empress dowager grandmother Cixi 18351908 diverted funds for her own aesthetic purposes Spheres of In uences a b Qing dynasty loses in uence in southeast Asia losing tributary states to Europeans and japanese i Vietnam France 1886 ii Burma Great Britain 1885 iii Korea Taiwan Liaodong Peninsula japan 1895 China itself divided into spheres of in uence 1895 Hundred Days Reforms 1898 09069 Kang Youwei 18581927 and Liang Qichao 18731929 Interpreted Confucianism to allow for radical changes to system ProIndustrialization Emperor Guangxu attempts to implement reforms Empress dowager Cixi nulli es reforms imprisons emperor X The Boxer Rebellion a Empress Cixi supports Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists Boxers antiforeign militia units b 1899 ght to ride China of quotforeign devilsquot Crushed by coalition of European forces 1912 last emperor of the Qing dynasty abdicated abdicated means to step down e 1911 Put a 2 year old on the thrown an 4 Japan 50100 Euro model how do they do things differently and end up as an assessor nann Enlightenment Imperialism Japan From Tokugawa t0 MEljl European Imperialism inJapan A Transformation ofJapan a Japanese society in turmoil in early nineteenth century i Poor agriculture output famines high taxes ii Daimyo samurai classes decline peasants starve b Tokugawa government attempts reforms 18411843 i Cancelled daimyo samurai debts ii Abolished merchant guilds iii Compelled peasants to return to cultivating rice iv Reforms ineffective B Foreign Pressure a lsolation no foreign contact and no Japanese could leave penalty of death Europeans Americans attempting to establish relations US in particular look for Paci c ports for whalers merchants Japan only allowed Dutch presence in Nagasaki 1853 Matthew Perry sails gunship up to Edo Tokyo forces Japanese to open port Sparks conservative Japanese reaction rally around emperor in Kyoto quotRevere the emperor expel the barbariansquot C The Meiji Restoration 1868 a Brief civil war between imperial and Tokugawa forces b 1868 Emperor Mutsuhito Meiji 18521912 takes power quotEnlightened Rulequot c Goals of prosperity and strength quotrich country strong armyquot d Resolved to learn western technology D Meiji Reform a Students travel to US Europe i Argue for adoption of western legal proceedings technology Lear in order to revise treaties b Meiji government removes privileges for daimyo samurai i Conscript army replaces samurai mercenaries ii Samurai rebellion crushed by national army c Tax reform payment in cash not kind grain E Constitutional Government a 1889 constitutionConstitutional Monarchy b Conservative only 5 of male population allowed to vote in 1890 election c Economic reforms to promote rapid industrialization d Dramatic improvement in literacy rates DQ00 h e Government holdings sold to private investors zaibatsu nancial cliques develop F Costs of Progress and Change a Peasants were taxed heavily 4050 of crop yield b They rebel and are crushed c Unions and strikes are criminal activities G Think About THEME a In what ways were the Russian Empire Ottoman Empire China and Japan behind Western Europe Provide speci c reasons for each area b What made Japan different from the others Why was it able to become an industrial powerhouse when the Russian Empire is plagued with revolution the Ottoman Empire collapsed completely and China lost its sphere of in uence What did it do differently or better H 170 5 India Euro model Enlightenment Imperialism Militarytechnoogy India and British Imperialism A De nitions a Imperialism the domination of European powers later the United States and Japan b Colonialism 1 Send out colonists to settle new lands 2 Political social economic and cultural structures implemented in new lands so imperial power can dominate c Social Darwinism survival of the ttest nation B The quotWhite Man s Burdenquot a Rudyard Kipling 18641936 i Duty to bring order and enlightenment to distant lands b French mission civilisatrice c Kishlansky Page 583584 C Geopolitical Imperialism geography and politics a Strategic footholds i Waterways ii Supply stations iii Imperial rivalries iv Example Crimean War Ottoman vs Russia D Political Imperialism a Crises of industrialism b Pressure from nascent socialism c Imperial policies distract proletariat form domestic politics i Cecil Rhodes imperialism alternative to civil war imperialized Africa E Military Imperialism Faster you kill the nativesfaster land can be taken a Muzzleloading muskets b Midcentury breechloading ri es i Reduce reloading time c 18805 Maxim gun 11 rounds per second F Military Imperialism Examples a Battle of Omdurman near Khartoum on Nile 1898 i Five hours of ghting b British six gunboats twenty machine guns c British force lost a few hundred men thousands of Sudanese killed G Technological Imperialism a Transportation i Steamships ii Railroads b Infrastructure i Suez Canal 18591869 ii Panama Canal 19041914 c Correspondence i 1830 BritainIndia 2 years ii After Suez Canal 2 weeks d Telegraph i 18705 development of submarine cables ii BritainIndia 5 hours H Economic Imperialism a Mother countrycolony relationship b Get raw materials from colony turn It into a nished product in mother country and sell it back to the readymade coIoniaI market c The colony has the power to make the product but mother country way is more modern I Religious Imperialism a If it is not a form of Protestantism the colonial way is wrong and must be converted b It is the mother country s God given duty to send missionaries c Example British disrespect for Indian religions J Demographic Imperialism population a Demographic means population b CriminaI Imperialism criminals are unwanted in society and are shipped off to undesirable area While there they create a colony because they probably do not have money to return home once released c Example British created Australia as a penal coIony K Dissident Demographic Imperialism trouble makers a Dissident means troubIemaker people trying to cause political social trouble in the European country b Dissidents were shipped to far off Iands so they could not cause trouble c Dates back to the time of the Greeks They spreads the home country39s culture to the new area L British Empire in India a East India Company b Monopoly on India trade c Original permission from Mughal emperors d Mughal empire declines after death of Aurangzeb 1707 M British Conquest a British and Indian troops sepoys i Revolt against the British and fail N Sepoys Revolt 1857 a Newly issued ri es had cartridges in wax paper greased with animal fat i Problem for Hindus beef ii Problem for Muslims pork b Smallscale rebellion ignites general antiBritish revolution c British gained upper hand in late 1857 0 British lmperial Rule a Establishes direct rule of India by British government Africa the Paci c and European Imperialism A The Scramble for Africa 18751900 a French Portuguese Belgians and English competing for quotthe dark con nent b What is Africa called the Dark Continent c Example Britain establishes strong presence in Egypt Rhodesia i Suez Canal ii Rhodesian gold diamonds iii Cecil RhodesRhodesia 1 Political Imperialism B Rewriting African History a Implications ofjusti cation of imperialist rule b European exploration of rivers Nile Niger Congo Zambesi i Information on interior of Africa Livingstone and Stanely ii King Leopold II of Belgium starts Congo Free State commercial ventures iii Takes control of colony in 1908 renamed Belgian Congo C South African Boer War 18991902 a Dutch East India establishes Cape Town 1652 i Farmers Boers follow to settle territory later called Afrikaners ii Competition and con ict with indigenous Khoikhoi and Xhosa people b British takeover in 1806 slavery a major issue of con ict i Afrikaners migrate eastward to the Great Trek overpower Ndebele and Zulu resistance with superior repower ii Establish independent republics c British tolerate this until Gold is discovered d Whitewhite con ict black soldiers and laborers e Afrikaners concede in 1902 1910 integrated into Union of South Africa a largely autonomous British dominion D The Berlin West African Conference 18841885 a Fourteen European states United States i No African states present ii Rules of colonization any European state can take quotunoccupiedquot territory after informing other European powers b European repower dominates Africa i Exceptions Ethiopia ghts off Italy 1896 Liberia a dependency of the US E Systems of Colonial Rule a Concessionary companies i Private companies get large tracts of land to exploit natural resources ii Companies get freedom to tax recruit labor horrible abuses iii Pro t margin minimal b Direct rule France i quotcivilizing missionquot ii Chronic shortage of European personnel39 language and cultural barriers iii French west Africa 3600 Europeans rule 9 million F Direct Rule a Direct Rule imposed their ideas belies and ways over their colonies It was centralized uniform and aimed at assimilating colonial subjects into the French system b Colonial Assimilation argued that French law and citizenship was based on universal values that came from the French Revolution c Seen in French colonies G Indirect Rule a Indirect Rule a system of government called quotProtectoratesquot or quotTrucial statesquot The daytoday government and administration was left in the hands of traditional rulers Ruler gained prestige and the stability and protection but lost control of external affairs taxation communications and usually made a small number of European quotadvisorsquot effectively overseeing the government Usually in British controlled areas H European Imperialism in Australia and New Zealand a English use Australia as a penal colony from 1788 b Voluntary migrants follow gold discovered 1851 c New Zealand i British quotprotectionquot
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