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Foreign policy institutions I.pdf

by: Nicolas Mai

Foreign policy institutions I.pdf Government 344

Marketplace > Government > Government 344 > Foreign policy institutions I pdf
Nicolas Mai
GPA 3.72
American Foreign Relations
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American Foreign Relations
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This 2 page Reader was uploaded by Nicolas Mai on Sunday October 5, 2014. The Reader belongs to Government 344 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 108 views.

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Date Created: 10/05/14
Foreign policy institutions I 1 Congress V POTUS over foreign policy 0 Divided authority o POTUS commander in chief o Congress declarations of war budgetary authority Divided competence access to information The first military action against the pirates in Libya Congress is actually delegating the authority of war to president o POTUS intel access ability to act quickly o Congress disadvantaged on both The president is better reacting quickly and no need to vote The problem though is that president has too much authority With too much authority you can have war because of the decision of one person That is not the spirit of democracy II The principal agent problem The idea that I want something done I39ll do it myself but I can39t so I delegate to someone else The president is commander in chief of the armed forces but Congress can declare war Congress also controls the budget How did Congress solve this in 1973 Principal has limited time resources information Congress delegates a lot of stuff Agencies such as FBI Congressional Budget Office They even delegate work to committees Delegates task to an agent But o Agent has own preferences and incentives Congress gave delegate the control of the army but that could be a problem o Agent has informational advantage The president knows what to do It gives the intelligence report that president always has access o Agent39s actions hard to monitor So this creates a major problem tat Congress tries to solve So how does the principal ensure that the agent stays in line Employer employee relationship how do you encourage your employee to do the work You fire them if they are inefficient You can deter them but if deterrence fails then you can start war Punishing them is easy But what you might do is encourage them to avoid punishment The president might not start a war punishment is too harsh You just blame the president what she president is doing The vast majority of public servants are lawyers When you start a debate about what is acceptable or not the president cannot deploy troops for a certain amount of time Congress makes clear rules so that the agent does not say you did not tell me about it but if the law is too strict there is a risk that it is not always applied Congress tries to do a mix of clear standards about when President can use force and punishment after the facts III The War Powers Resolution of 1973 One solution oversight and ex post sanction The War Powers Resolution Being realistic that declarations of war are dead as a legislative tool Congress had to limit the situations that justify the use of force by the President o Limits situations justifying use of force They limit them to 3 The US has to be attacked Congress has to declare war Statutory approval Congress has to approve Any use of force has to get Congress approval within 60 days So president can use force but needs approval If Congress does not approve the money for the war goes somewhere else You hope the president won39t fight many wars without congress approval 0 Requires subsequent Congressional approval But No solution is perfect Amount of what requires the president to get approval for In 2011 you had a threat from President You get UN approval and if you give a bunch of powers a dictator on their side is going to do it The US begins the operations with missile strikes NATO countries join But never intent to secure Congressional approval The WPR you can39t afford having Congress every day to approve the action of the president After 911 the president got approval to go after the group responsible for the attack Every president also said they don39t really need the War Power Resolutions 9 Nixon Ford Carter Reagan Bush Clinton Bush and Obama They call it unconstitutional Because it limits the power of president which is what Congress wants to do in general Conclusion Constitution creates adversarial system of government Ant that39s no different for foreign policy War Power resolution comes with tradeoffs o Sacrifices close monitoring to preserve military exibility 0 Concepts lack clarity often exploited No president wants it Nixon vetoed but was overridden But Congress wanted it so badly that


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