Week 9/22-24 Notes
Week 9/22-24 Notes CHE 106 - M001
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CHE 106 - M001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Merwin on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by R. Doyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry Lecture I in Chemistry at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Doyle Chemistry Lecture Main Notes Week of 929 The Periodic Table A tabular arrangement of the elements in rows and columns highlighting the regular repetition of properties of the elements 0 Periodhorizontal 0 Group column usually numbered 0 The 8 A groups are called the main group or representative elements 1869 Mendeleev discovered that the known elements could be placed in order of rows and columns according to the atomic number and similar properties Periodicity repeating pattern of reactivities from the chemical elements order Periods and Groups cont 0 The B groups are called transition elements 0 The rows of element on the bottom are called inner transition elements 0 Elements in the same group have similar properties 0 1A group alkali earth metals soft metals that react easily with what 0 7A group halogens are also hella reactive 0 8A group is the noble gases usually not reactive Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids 0 Metal is an element with luster and shine good electric conductibility often malleable and ductile Ag Au 0 Nonmetals are elements that do not have the same properties of metals like 0 and C O Metalloid or semimetal has both metal and metal and nonmetal properties they are semiconductors Chemical formula of a substance is a notation using atomic symbols with subscripts to show the proportions of each atoms in an element in a substance Molecular formulas 0 Rulez the order is such the number of carbon atoms is 1 the number of hydrogen comes 2nd and then the rest are listed in alphabetical order If no carbon then just list the lements alphabetically even if der is a H Organic Compounds 0 Are an important class of molecular substnaces because they make up the majority of all known compounds 0 Simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons which consist of only hydrogen and carbon 0 Methane CH4 ethane C2H6 and propane C3Hg O Sulfer added to ethane creating ethanethiol so you can smell it when a leak occurs I Ionic compound are made up of cations and anions They are written by giving the smallest possible wholenumber ratio of different ions in the substance Writing Ionic Formulas 0 Compounds are electrically neutral because the charges add up to zero I The charge of the cation becomes the subscript on anion I The charge on the anion becomes the subscript on the cation 0 If these subscripts are not the lowest wholenumber ratio divide them by the greatest common factor 0 NAME the ionic compound by giving the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion I Monoatomic and ion formed from a single atom 0 The main group metals form cations with the charge equal to their group number group numb 1A has a 1 charge and 2A has 2 0 The monoatomic anion for nonmetals equals to their group number minus 8 6A has a 2 charge and 7B has 1 Most transitional elements form more than one ion each with a different charge 0 Monatomic naming I Named after the element Al3 is called the aluminum ion I If there is more than one cation of an element a roman numeral in parentheses denoting the charge on the ion is udes This often occurs with transition elements Such IronII and Iron III I The names of the monomaniac anions use the stem name of the element followed by the suffix ide Br is bromide ion 0 I Common cations 0 Common Anion 0 InorganicIonic Nomenclature 0 Write the name of the cation if the anion is an element change its ending to ide if the anion is the polyatomic ion simply write the name of the polyatomic ion 0 Cation can have more than one possible charge write the charges as a Roman numeral in parenthesis 0 Polyatomic ion is an ion consisting of two or more atoms chemically bonded together and carrying a net electric charge I Common Polyatomic Ions 0 Patterns in Oxyanion Nomenclature when there are two oxyanionsanions containing 0 involving the same element 0 The one with fewer 0 ends in ite 0 The one with more 0 ends in ate 0 The one with the fewest O has the prefix hypo and ends in ite 0 The one with the most 0 has the prefix per and ends in ate O O The one with the second fewest 0 ends in ite The one with the second most 0 ends in ate 0 Binary Molecular Compounds 0 O O O Acids A binary compounds is a compound composed of only two elements Composed of a metal and a nonmetal are usually ionic and are named as ionic compounds Binary compounds composed of two nonmetals are usually molecular and are named using a prefix system NAME name of the compound has the elements in order in the formula Name the first element using the exact element name The second element by writing the stem name of the element with the suffix ide If there is more than one atom of any given element you add a prefix Here are some examples of prefix names for binary molecular compounds I SF4 sulfer tetra uoride 39 C102 chlorine dioxide 39 SF6 sulfur hexa uoride 39 C1207 dichlorine heptoxide 0 defined as compounds that yield a H cation and some anion when dissolved in water 0 Binary acids consist of a hydrogen ion and any single anion 0 An oxoacid is an acid containing hydrogen oxygen and another element 0 NAME 0 000000000 If the anion in the acid ends in ide change the ending to ic acid and add the prefix hydro HCl hydrochloric acid HBr hydrobromic acid HI hydroiodic acid If the anion in the acid ends in ate change the ending to ic acid HClO3 chloric acid HClO4 perchloric acid If the anion in the acid ends in ite change the ending to ous acid HClO hypochlorous acid HClOZ chlorous acid TERMZZZ Moleculea definite group of atoms that are chemically bonded together ith attractive forces Molecular substancea substance that is composed of molecules all of Whih are alike 5 Molecular formulagives exact number of each element in a compound With subscripts 7 a Structural formulashow the atoms are bonded to one another in a molecule ike so H O H Empirical formulagives lowest Whole number ratio of element atom in a ompound Inorganic and organic is how chemical bonds are classified Organic Compounds that contain carbon along With other elements such as nitrogen hydrogen and oxygen Inorganic Compounds composed of elements other than carbon a Ionselectrically charged particles obtained from an atom or chemicall bonded group of atoms by adding or removing electrons Anionthe negatively charged ion that results from the atom picking up an extra electron Formed by the elements on the right side of the periodic chart Cationa positively charged ion that is a result of an atom losing an electro Formed by elements on the left side of the periodic chart Ionic compound a compound made up of cations and anions u u D Hi 7 at i 39 1 Formula unitof the substance is the group of atoms or ions explicitly symbolized by its formula Stoichiometry is the calculation of the quantities of reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction 0 This is based on balanced chemical equations and the relationship between mass and moles 0 Fundamental to most quantitative chemistry In a chemical equation which is a representation of a chemical reaction in terms of chemical formulas the reactants are starting substances to the left and the following arrow means yield or the reaction occurred The items to the right are the products Stoichiometry allows for a universal recipe of every chemical equation and this is done with the relationship of moles to mass and molecules Molecular weight the sum of the atmic weights of all the atoms in a molecule of a substance 0 Ex H20 has two hydrogens at 10 amu ea and 1 oxygen at 1599 amu giving it a molecular weight of 18 amu Formula weightthe sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in one formula unit of the compound whether molecular or nah A mole is the quantity of a given substance that contains as many molecules or formula units as the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon12 Avogadro s number is 602214179 x 1023 This is also the value of a mole A mole of a substance is Gadro s of molecules 0 A mole of oxygen atoms 0 has 602 x 1023 O atoms 0 A mole of oxygen molecules 02 has 120 x 1024 O atoms The molar mass of a substance is the mass of one mole of a substance In gramsmol a substance s molar mass is numerically equal to its formula weight in amu Use Avogadro s Formula units number The number of molecules or atoms in a sample is related to the moles of the substance 0 1 mole HCl602 x 1023 0 1 mole Fe 602 x 1023 Fe atoms When doing stoichiometry the units in focus must be diagonal from its same unit going right The percent composition of a compound is the mass percentage of each element in the compound Mass percentage is defined as Ex 1 molecule of C4H10 58 amu Percent composition leads to empirical formula is the formula of a substance written with the smallest integer whole number subscripts The mass of each element equals the numerical value of the percentage Our formulas represents mole by mole ratios so we must convert this into moles Find Calculate Empirical 39 mole ratio fofmula Molecular formula from the empirical formula This is a multiple of the imperical formula since both have the same percent composition You must know the molecular weight of the compound For example suppose the empirical formula of a compound is CHzO and its molecular weight is 600 gmol The molar weight of the empirical formula the empirical weight is only 300 gmol This indicates that the molecular formula is actually the empirical formula doubled n2 0139
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