Chapter 2 lecture notes
Chapter 2 lecture notes ANTY 101H - 02
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shania Notetaker on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTY 101H - 02 at University of Montana taught by David Garrett Kerr (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Anthro & the Human Experience in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Chapter 2 lecture notes The Chemical Level of Organization Matter Stuff of the universe Classical states of matter Solid de nite shape and volume Liquid de nite volume changeable shape Gas has a chargeable shape and volume Plasma similar to a gas in that is has a changeable shape and volume but is conductive as the electrons are disassociated from the nuclei of atoms All forms of matter are composed of chemical elements they cannot be spit into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means Chemical symbols the letter abbreviations for elements Trace elements elements in our bodies present in tiny amounts Structure of atoms Units of matter all chemical elements are called atoms Atoms are made up of subatomic particles Atoms contain protons neutrons and electrons Electrons have a negative charge Protons have a positive charge the atomic number is the number of protons Neutrons are neutral they have no charge but they do have mass Their mass can change with different isotopes Atoms can vary in size and complexity larger atoms have layered electron shells Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom Mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in an atom Atomic mass is the average mass Mass is measured as a dalton Ions molecules and compounds Ions are atoms that have given up or gained an electron in their outer electron shell also called he valence shell When atoms lose an electron they have a positive charge and are called cations When atoms gain an electron they have a negative charge and are clawed anions Memorize the common ions and ionic compounds in the body Molecules are formed when atoms share electrons Compounds are two or more different kinds of atoms that are chemically bonded together All compounds are molecules but yet not all molecules are compounds because a compound has to include different atoms Molecules are formed when atoms share electrons A free radical is an electrically charged atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in tits outermost she ll They are unable and highly reactive they can become stable by giving up an electron or taking an electron form another molecule Antioxidants are substances that inactivate oxygen derived free radical Chemical Bonds The atoms of a molecule are held together by forces of attraction called chemical bonds The likelihood that an atom will form a chemical bond with another atoms depends on the number of electrons in its outermost or valence shell lonic bonds for when at atom loses or gains a valence electron Covalent bonds formed by the atoms of molecules sharing one two or three paris of their balance electrons Covalent bonds are the strongest bonds They can be polar or non polar Nonpolar atoms share the electrons equal most common type of bond polar bonds are formed by the unequal sharing of electrons between atoms Polar bonds are extremely important because the water molecule makes use of this bonds Hydrogen bonds are weak interactions between hydrogen and adjacent electronegative atoms like oxygen or sulfur Hydrogen bonds result form attraction of oppositely charged parts of molecules this is attraction and NOT sharing Although they are weak they are extremely important They are useful in establishing like between molecules or between distant parts of a very large molecule Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions occur when electron in the valence shell are shared or transferred New bonds form and or old bonds are broken Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions in the body Law of conservation of energy Energy is the capacity to do work and it is transferred in a chemical reaction Kinetic energy the energy of matter in motion Potential energy is energy stored by matter due to an objects position in space or store in chemical bonds Exergonic reaction releases energy usually in the form of heat It does this by breaking a bond with more energy than the one being formed Endergonic reaction requires that energy be added Usually from ATP to form a bond Activation energy the energy required to break chemical bonds in the reactant molecules Catalysts are compounds that lower activation energy Enzymes are biological catalysts They are neither consumed nor produced in the reaction they are used over and over again Synthesis reactions anabolism A B to AB Decomposition reactions catabolism AB to A B Exchange reactions AB CD to AD CB Reversible reactions AC to A C A lot of reactions are reversible a lot of bodily reactions are also reversible Inorganic and organic Compounds Inorganic compounds are structurally simple molecules that usually lack carbon Organic Compounds always contain carbon and are usually large complex molecules They usually contain hydrogen and always have covalent bonds Inorganic compounds Water the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living systems Water s most important property is polarity the uneven sharing of balance electrons that enables reactants to collide to form products Water as a solvent In a solution the solvent dissolves the solute Substances that contain polar covalent bonds and dissolve in water are HYDROPHILIC but substances that contain nonpolar covalent bonds are HYDROPHOBIC The polarity of water allows it to interact with neighboring ions or molecules Water s role as a solvent makes it essential for health and survival Water has a hight heat capacity it can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat with only a modest charge inits own temperature This is due to the large number of hysgogen ions in the water Heat of vaporization amount of heat needed to charged from a liquid to a gas Waters HOV is also high Three Common Mixtures Mixture a combination of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but are not bound by chemical bonds Solution the solvent dissolves another substance called the solute Usually there is more solvent than solute Colloid The particles in the colloid are large enough to scatter light milk it differs from a solution mainly on the size of particles Suspension suspended material may mix with the liquid or suspending medium for some time but it will eventually settle out blood Methods of measurement Concentration is a way of stating the amount of that molecule in a particular solution Percent relative mass of a solute found in 100ml of a solution that is usually water Mole convenient way of counting large numbers of small things atoms or molecules 1 mole 602 X 10quot23 of something just like 1 dozen is 12 of something One mole of hydrogen atoms weights 101 grams which is the same mass of hydrogen in Daltons 1 mole of oxygen atoms 15999 grams 1 mole of sodium atoms 22989 grams 1 mole of any atom of molecule is found in the atomic mass of that element or the molecular mass of that compound Acids Bases and Salts Three major groups of inorganic compounds all dissociate into ions when dissolved in water Salts dissociate into cations and anions Acids release one or more hygrogen ions and an anion Bases release one or more hydroxide ions and a cation Salts inorganic compounds that contain cations other than H and anions other than OH They are electrolytes and they conduct electrical currents in solution Acids Bases and Buffers pHlt 7 is acidic pHgt 7 is alkaline A salt like KCL is neutral pH logH concentration of H in molesL It is a scale that runs from 014 The pH scale is a logarithmic scale and not a linear scale The lower the number the higher the H concentration A change of two or three pH units represents a change in the H of 100 or 1000 A solution with a pH1 is 100 times more concentrated in H ions than a solution with a pH3 The pH values of different parts of the body are maintained fairly constant by Buffer systems which usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base Buffers convert strong acids and strong bases into weak acids and weak bases They hide excess H ions or excess OH ions as other molecules The major buffer system in the body is carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system Organic Compounds Very large molecules are called macromolecules or polymers if all the moment submits are similar lsomers have the same molecular formulas but different structures Carbohydrates provide most of the energy needed for life and include sugars starches and glycogen and cellulose some carbs are converted to other substages whiter uses to build structures and to generate ATP Other carbs ction as food reserves Carbs are divided into three major groups bases on their size monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides Monosaccharides are the simplest sugars 5 carbon sugars are used in nucleic acid 6 carbon sugars are the most easily recognizable in our diet Disaccharides made by combining 2 monosaccharides by removing a water molecule dehydration synthesis Sucrose glucosefructose Lactose glucose galactose Polysaccharides the largest carbs and may contain hundreds of monosaccharides Main poly in the body is glycogen which is store dint live or skeletal muscles Lipids another major group of organic molecules They contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen But they do not have a 21 ration of hydrogen to oxygen They have few polar covalent bonds which makes them hydrophobic and mostly insoluble in water They combine with proteins lipoproteins for transport in blood Triglycerides the most plentiful lipid in the body and provide protection insulation and energy both immediate and stored They may either be solid or liquid at room temperature Storage is virtually unlimited Excess dietary carbohydrates proteins fats and oils are deposited in adipose tissue as triglycerides they provide more than twice as much energy per gram as either carbs or proteins Phospholipids important membrane components They have both polar and non polar regions which make them soluble in both water and fats which is called amphipathic both hydrophilic and ipophiic Have a polar head formed form a phosphate group and a glycerol molecule and 2 non polar fatty acid tails that interact only with lipids have a polar head and 2 non polar tails Steriods lipid molecules that have four rings of carbon atoms they include sex hormones bile salts some vitamins and cholesterol an important component of cell membranes and as starting material for synthesizing other steroids Bases on the lipid cholesterol molecule They include the molecules used a sex hormones and well as other hormones used in coping with stress cortisol elevated cortisol levels when you are stress results in sickness lt depresses immunity Proteins large molecules that contain carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen They are the most human of all organic impounds Need to know the functions of proteinsgtltgtlt They are constructed from the combinations of different amino acids Dipeptides formed form 2 amino acids joined by a covalent bond called a peptide bond which is a process that involves dehydration synthesis Polypeptide chains contain 102000 amino acids Fibrous and globular proteins
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