Chapter 1 notes and terms
Chapter 1 notes and terms ANTY 101H - 02
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shania Notetaker on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTY 101H - 02 at University of Montana taught by David Garrett Kerr (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Anthro & the Human Experience in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Anthropology Notes Nanook of the North rst documentary ever made the list below is talking about Nanook s culture Limiting factors warmth food Division of labor there are certain things that a man does and certain things that a women does There are speci c mens and women roles and no one complains about them Feasting followed by famine Without the dog they would not be able to colonize that area The dogs are fed good they feed them good cuts of meat They are their most important possession Nanook is not only culturally adapted to the area but biologically adapted which is why they don t get frost bite when we would Happens through natural selection Dogs are biologically adapted Very good family relations because they are together all the time One of the most important four letter words PLAY Play is important for children because it prepares them for adukhood They give their children little bows and arrows and the puppies mini sleds to pull Kids think its just play but its preparing them for their futures If you can manage hand eye coordination you can manage where the needle is going to go The kids are gaining proprioception They need to be able to do tasks without being able to see because conditions may not be great Toys will tell whether a child is going to be a good follower or a good leader by the way they play with their toys Being an archeologist is a lot of a guessing game Don t guess what is was used for unless you have some proof 1 Anthropology terms Physical or biological look at different cultures through their physical and or biological adaptations Archaeology the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains Sociocultural combing social and cultural factors Participant observation one type of data collection method Do everything they do you are observing but you are participating as well You don t change their culture you are trying to see the culture through their eyes and you should know the language Know their taboos Hypothesis a proposed explanation based on limited evidence for the basis of further explanation Tentative explanation Ethics should have 3 very strong ethical allegiances 1 Funding institution 2 publishing institution 3 To the people you study Forensics Linguistics CultureBound Holistic you are viewing their culture in the broadest context Everything through religion to food trying to learn everything you can about their culture Theory get modi ed again and again Cultural Ethnology Ethnography study of an area going and living with a certain tribe or type of people Fact tend to be observation veri ed by observers Ethnohistory study of another culture of the recent past through history its based on word of mouth they have never met these people Paleoanthropologist study of bones and artifacts Artifacts any objects that a human has altered in the past You can tell a lot of information from an artifact Who made it what did they use it for Ecofact something in the environment someone has come into contact with like a bone they have ate the meat off of Just something that you used one time and don t use again Feature could be a trail or an old house tend to be fairly large things that you have to study right where its at Unaltered Fossil one that has not been taken out of its rock it has not been touched it is in the state that it has died Fossil Locality just a place where you nd fossils Fossils occur there naturally Datum Point everything is going to be measured from this point Technology the knowledge people use to make toos What do they make their tools out of Altered Fossil things that are not in the state they were left in Either altered by the soil or anything else Agatized turned to rock FossH Soil Marks tend to be stains on the surface of the soil or marks on the tops of rocks Flotation use water to separate soil particles Little things like seeds and shells will be sorted out and studied Small particles that fall through the screen will be picked up Site is a place where you can nd archeological remains and usually named after what went on there Place of human activity Grid System is a way for recording the data from a system its pretty much a map And it can be divided into smaller and smaller grids It can be as big or as small as can be until its 1 meter by 1 meter Strati ed means layered A site may be layered like a cake You might see evolution in a strati ed site because time periods are separated by ayers Fossil Record is biased the predators are less likely to get into it then the prey are Dating Techniques Relative tell you one object one fossil one event is older relative to another object but does not tell you how much Absolute gives you a date telling you actually how old they are don t just use one dating technique use as many as possible Stratigraphy comes from geography The most recent layers are going to be on top the older are going to be below This is a relative technique One thing is older relative to another Works well unless there is a geological change because of a fault that shifted the soil Fluorine based on bones The older the bones the more uorine present Within a site if you have two or more bones you can compare them to tell if one is older than the other but it can t tell you how much older it is This is a relative dating technique Palynology looking at fossil pollens it is the study of pollens Can tell a lot of stuff Can tell what type of environment it is and when it was dropped diet time of year if a new plant has been introduced Tend to be unique and fairly indestructible This is a relative dating technique but you can get some idea of time Radiocarbon C14 its fairly accurate upper limit is fairly 50000 years Only works on organic material something once living It measures the amount of carbon 14 left Dendrochronology Potassium Argon Kar Comparative vert paleo looking at animals that they have changed over time Usually animals that have had some connection to people Animals that have been exploited by people They used to be wild but people have domesticated them Amino acid racemization Halflife the amount of time the material takes the material to break down or decay Very accurate