Protein and Vegetarianism
Protein and Vegetarianism FDNS 2100
Popular in Human Nutrition and Food
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Boone on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Grossman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Protein Amino Acids the building blocks of proteins Types of Amino Acids 20 total o Essential must come from diet 9 of the 20 total 9 Nonessential can be made in body Amino Acid Structure amino group acid group side group 9 Acid group is always the same o Side group differs what makes Amino Acids different from each other Proteins form by Amino Acids coming together o 2 Amino Acids are bonded by dipeptide bonds 9 3 amino acids are bonded by polypeptide bonds o Each Amino Acid can bond with 2 other Amino Acids Protein Structure 2 Amino Acids bind to form a peptide l peptides bond to form a polypeptide Protein Folding a peptide folds into a 3D structure determined by the Amino Acid sequence Protein Denaturation irreversible change in protein shape 9 Caused by heat acid HCI in your stomach or other agents o Disrupts the protein s function o Example frying an egg or curdling milk Protein Synthesis Summary 9 Requires that all essential Amino Acids are available 9 Sequence of Amino Acids in a protein is determined by a subunit of DNA o Sequence of Amino Acids in a protein determines the function and shape of the protein o If there s an error in protein synthesis May alter the protein s function example Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle Cell Anemia caused by an error in DNA o Single error in Amino Acids sequence of a protein 9 Red blood cells become sticky and sickleshaped block arteries and die in 1020 days normal red blood cell death is in 120 days Protein Digestion Protein from food becomes Amino Acids in the body Functions of Body Protein Structural and Mechanical Functions 9 Muscle bones teeth skin 9 Example collagen Enzymes 9 Act as catalysts speed up reactions in the body 9 May be catabolic or anabolic 9 Example protease Hormones o Messenger molecules 9 Example insulin lmmune Function o Antibodies attack bacteria and viruses Fluid Balance o Proteins attract water that allows cells to retain uid 9 Example Edema AcidBase Balance o Proteins act as buffers and maintain the PH of blood Transport 9 Within the blood stream 9 Membranebound carrier Source of Energy sometimes 9 4 kcallg 9 Protein Energy Function not used unless There s not enough energy from carbs There s an excess of protein intake There s a severe calorie restrictionlow carb diet 9 Blood dismantes protein to use for energy 9 Muscle protein l Amino Acid l Glucose for energy 9 Results in muscle wasting release of ammonia stressed kidneys o Consume suf cient carbs to prevent muscle wasting Nitrogen Balance NB Positive Nitrogen Balance 0 Nitrogen intake is greater than Nitrogen output body retains Nitrogen 0 Example pregnancy growth muscle building Negative Nitrogen Balance 0 Nitrogen intake is less than Nitrogen output body oses Nitrogen 0 Example weight loss iness quotwasting diseasequot Zero Nitrogen Balance 0 Nitrogen intake Nitrogen output equilibrium 0 This is the case for most people Protein in Food High sources roast beef turkey chicken pork tuna lentilsbeans peas etc o A legume roots capture Nitrogen and put it in the seed pods this is why legumes contain Amino Acids Low protein sources fruits contain the least amount vegetables contain a little more than fruits Top protein sources in the US beef poultry milk bread cheese sh pork eggs soy products nuts and seeds Food Proteins quality use and need 0 Protein Quality determined by digestibility and Amino Acid composition 0 Complete Protein supplies ALL essential Amino Acids Animal and soy protein 0 Incomplete Protein lacking 1 or more essential Amino Acids Plant protein 0 Complementary Proteins adding 2 incomplete proteins can make 1 complete protein The 2 incomplete proteins must be eaten within the same day Done by combining more than 1 plant protein to create a complete protein because the person lacks animal protein in their diet Example vegan diets Recommended Protein lntakes Protein RDA 0 Adults 08 grams per kilogram of body weight Example a 220 lb person has 100 kilograms of body weight so you multiply the 100kilograms of body weight by 08 grams of protein and you get 80 grams of protein as the RDA for this particular adult Growing Children 1 gram per kilogram of body weight Excess protein is stored as fat 0 This generates ammonia NH3 that s excreted by the kidneys Is a high protein diet harmful 0 High animal protein diet Typically low in plant foods which means low in ber vitamins and phytochemicals Increased risk of heart disease and colon cancer stresses kidneys increased bone loss 0 Don t consume more than 2X the RDA for protein 0 Protein needs for a weight training diet are on ELC 0 Protein Supplements A single Amino Acid supplement can inhibit absorption of another Amino Acid which causes an Amino Acid de ciency Protein De ciency ProteinEnergy Malnutrition PEM both a protein and an energy de ciency Most widespread malnutrition in the world Vegetarianism LactoOvo Vegetarianism 9 Most common form of vegetarianism in the US and Canada 9 Avoid meat sh and poultry 0 Still eat eggs and dairy Vegan 9 Strict vegetarian 9 Avoid ALL animal products meat eggs dairy sh even honey Flexitarian 9 Plant based diet with occasional meat products 9 Usually practiced by people who don t care for meat Meat Restrictor Q Exclude 1 meat example red meat Vegetarian Foods are Universal 0 Most people of the world have eaten a largely vegetarian diet 9 Only a iuent societies have diets based around meat Europe and North America Bene ts of a Vegetarian diet 0 Low in cholesterol and saturated fats I Cholesterol only comes from animal products 9 High ber content from whole grains fruits and vegetables 9 Contain healthy fats from nuts seeds and avocados 0 Less risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease cancers diabetes and obesity Why people do it 0 Health primary reason less risk of chronic diseases 0 Concern for environment I Cattle grazing leads to erosion of soil I Pollution I Large resource use from animal farms I Can produce more protein per acre of plant than per acre of cattle 0 Ethical Choice compassion for animals or religious reasons 9 Aesthetic Reasons don t like the taste or look of meat 0 Political don t eat meat to help alleviate world hunger and grow more plant protein I What vegetarians need to consider 9 Vegetable sources of protein are incomplete proteins Q You must compliment plant proteins to receive all the necessary Amino Acids I These must be eaten within the same day I Complimentary Proteins lnclude Q Grains legumes example rice and bean casserole Q Grains dairy example cereal 9 Seeds legumes example sesame seeds in bean soup I Nutrients possibly limited in a vegan diet because they usually come from animal products 9 Protein Calcium but can be found in greens lron but can be found in spinach broccoli and raisins Zinc but can be found in peanut butter seeds and hummus Vitamin D but can be found in butter cereal and produced by the sun Vitamin 812 but can be found in soy milk and veggie burgers Q Omega3 fatty acids but can be found in canolaolive oils and English walnuts I Supplements possible for vegetarians 0 Vitamin D if dairy isn t consumed and don t receive 20 minutes a week of direct sunlight o Vitamin 812 if animal products or 812 forti ed products aren t consumed 0900 Q