The Iliad, Books 21-24
The Iliad, Books 21-24 Classics 320
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah James on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Classics 320 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Laura McClure in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see The Greeks in Classical Studies at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Theogonv bv Hesiod Creation came out of the Chasm chaos this is probably the realm or nothingness present before the universe was created 0 Earth Tartara Taratrus and Erebos the realm of darknessdeath came from the chasm Eros was the first god the god of sexual love Eros youngest son Kronos was a schemer and most fearsome of his children 0 Kronos hated Eros The children of Heaven and Earth were many 0 Earth bore the heavens first and later the mountains and sea 0 They bore cyclopes who had only one eye and gave Zeus his thunderbolt 0 They also bore three sons with 100 arms and 50 heads who were strong and powerful Kottos Briareos and Gyges Heaven hated his children from the beginning and he hid them away in a cavern of Earth 0 This filled Earth and she groaned and hated it 0 Earth created the element grey adamant a heavy metal the gods use and made a large hook She showed it to her children and Kronos said he would help her 0 Heaven came and stretched over Earth during the night and Kronos ambushed 0 him cutting off his genitals I When he ung them across the Earth the Erinyes Giants and Meliai were created 0 Erinyes goddesses of retribution for crimes such as murder and other serious crimes 0 Giants powerful beings that once fought against the gods and were defeated 0 Meliai tree nymphs I The genitals landed in the sea and when it foamed around them Aphrodite was created Heaven then gave his children the name Titans Night bore dark things like the Fates Death Misery Strife and O Hesperides signing maidens who live in the gardens beyond the sunset Hercules had to get their apples 0 The Furies prosecute the transgressions of men and gods Sea bore Nereus sometimes called Old man of the sea Thaumus bore Iris god s messenger assoc with rainbow and the Harpies goddesses of the stormwinds Phorcys and Ceto bore 0 The old women shared one eye and one tooth O The gorgons two were immortal Medusa was mortal I Poseidon lay with Medusa and when Perseus cut off her head Chrysaor and Pegasus came out 0 Pegasus ew away to live with the gods bringing thunder and lightning to Zeus I Chrysaor fathered threeheaded Geryoneus from whom Hercules stole cattle and whose dog Orthos he also killed 0 Echinda part nymph part serpent I Bore Orthos the dog I Bore Cerberus Hades dog I Bore the Hydra of Lerna the serpent that grows more heads when they are severed whom Hera fostered in her wrath towards Hercules 0 Hercules slew it with the help of Athena I Bore Chimaera who bore the Sphinx death to the people of Cadmus until Oedipus solved her riddle and the Nemean Lion slain by Hercules Tethys bore the swirling rivers Nile Rhesus etc and the Nymphs who bring fertility and fortune Thea with Hyperion gave birth to the Sun Moon and Dawn Dawn bore the winds and mist who bore the Morning Star and the other stars Rhea bore to Kronos O Hestia goddess of the hearth Demeter goddess of cereals Hera Hades Poseidon and Zeus Kronos swallowed all his children for Heaven and Earth predicted that he would be defeated by Zeus 0 When Zeus was to be born Rhea hid him in a cave to be raised by Earth and gave Kronos a stone to swallow Zeus defeated Kronos releasing the Cyclops s who gave him his thunderbolt as a thankyou Iapetos fathered Prometheus and Atlas 0 Atlas holds up the sky and Prometheus was punished by a bird for stealing fire for Man until Heracles set him free Zeus hated Man and punished them for receiving fire by working with Hephaestus and Athena to create Woman often called Athena Zeus recruited the hundredarmed men sons of Earth and Heaven who had long been imprisoned to fight the Titans 0 This turned the tide of the war and allowed Zeus to win 0 The Titans were imprisoned in Tartarus guarded by the hundredarmed men Nearby Tartarus stands Atlas who holds the sky 0 Night and Day switch places and one always waits in the house Night cradles Sleep and his brother Death Further on stands the house of Hades his hound Cerberus and the goddess Styx Earth bore her youngest son Typhoeus who had 100 snake heads that made every sound imaginable O Zeus saw how dangerous he was and he cut off all his heads and ung him into Tartarus O Typhoeus is responsible for the wet winds that blow haphazardly across the sea and trouble men on ships Zeus made Metis an Oceanid nymph whose name meant resourceful and cunning his first wife 0 But when she became pregnant Earth advised him to put her in his belly so that no other god could hold his royal station which he did Metis children would ve been very clever I He prevented the birth of an heir and now Metis is inside him which is why he possess resourcefulness and cunning Zeus second wife was Themis all that was right and proper in society 0 She bore him the Watchers Justice Lawfulness Peace and the Fates Eurynome bore Zeus the three Graces Splendor Good Cheer and Festivity Demeter bore Zeus Persephone who was stolen by Hades Memory bore Zeus the nine Muses Leto bore him Apollo and Artemis Hera bore him Hebe Ares and Eileithyia goddess of childbirth Zeus bore by himself Athena while Hera bore Hephaestus Poseidon and Amphitrite bore Tirton Ares and Cytherea bore Terror Fear and Harmonia To Zeus Maia Atlas daughter bore Hermes and Cadmus daughter King of Thebes Semele bore him Dionysus Alcmene bore Zeus Hercules Hephaestus made Aglaia his wife Dionysus made Ariadne Minos daughter his wife who was made immortal for him Heracles made Hebe daughter of Zeus his wife and became immortal Sun and Perseis bore Circe and King Aeetes Demeter gave birth to Wealth The IliadLBooks 2124 Book 21 0 Achilles splits the ranks of the Trojans pursuing half of them into the river known to the gods as Xanthus and to the mortals as Scamander 0 On the riverbank Achilles kills Lycaon a son of Priam O The Trojan Asteropaeus is given fresh strength by the god of the river but Achilles kills him as well 0 Achilles has no intention of sparing any Trojans now that they have killed Patroclus 0 He throws so many corpses into the river that its channels become clogged I The river god rises up and protests and Achilles agrees to stop throwing people into the water but not to stop killing them 0 The river sympathetic to the Trojans calls for help from Apollo but when Achilles hears the river s plea he attacks the river 0 The river gets the upper hand and drags Achilles all the way downstream to a oodplain I He very nearly kills Achilles but the gods intervene O Hephaestus sent by Hera sets the plain on fire and boils the river until he relents 0 A great commotion now breaks out among the gods as they argue over the human warfare 0 Athena defeats Ares and Aphrodite O Poseidon challenges Apollo but Apollo refuses to fight over mere mortals 0 His sister Artemis taunts him and tries to encourage him to fight but Hera overhears her and pounces on her 0 Priam sees the carnage on the battlefield and opens the gates of Troy to his eeing troops O Achilles pursues them and very nearly takes the city but the Trojan prince Agenor challenges him to single combat O Achilles fight with Agenor and with Apollo disguised as Agenor after Agenor has been whisked to safety I This allows the Trojans enough time to scurry back to Troy Book 22 0 Hector now stands as the only Trojan left outside Troy 0 Priam overlooking the battlefield from the city ramparts begs him to come inside 0 Hector having given the overconfident order for the Trojans to camp outside their gates the night before now feels too ashamed to join them in retreat 0 When Achilles returns from chasing Apollo disguised as Agenor Hector confronts him 0 At first the mighty Trojan considers trying to negotiate with Achilles but he soon realizes the hopelessness of his cause and ees 0 He runs around the city three times with Achilles at his heels 0 Zeus considers saving Hector but Athena persuades him that his time has come I Zeus places Hector s and Achilles respective fates on a golden scale and indeed Hector s sinks to the ground 0 During Hector s fourth circle around the city walls Athena appears before him disguised as his ally Deiphobus and convinces him that together they can take Achilles O Hector stops running and turns to face his opponent I He and Achilles exchange spear throws but neither scores a hit I Hector turns to Deiphobus to ask him for a lance when he finds his friend gone he realizes that the gods have betrayed him I In a desperate bid for glory he charges Achilles 0 However he still wears Achilles old armor stolen from Patroclus s dead body and Achilles knows the armor s weak points intimately I With a perfectly timed thrust he puts his spear through Hector s throat O Hector pleads with Achilles to return his body to the Trojans for burial but Achilles resolves to let the dogs and scavenger birds have the Trojan hero 0 The other Achaeans gather round and exultantly stab Hector s corpse O Achilles ties Hector s body to the back of his chariot and drags it through the dirt 0 Above on the city s walls King Priam and Queen Hecuba witness the devastation of their son s body and wail with grief O Andromache hears them from her chamber and runs outside When she sees her husband s corpse being dragged through the dirt she too collapses and weeps Book 23 I At the Achaean camp Achilles and the Myrmidons continue their mourning for Patroclus O Achilles begins to accept food but he refuses to wash until he has buried Patroclus 0 That night Patroclus appears to him in a dream begging Achilles to hold his funeral soon so that his soul can enter the land of the dead 0 The next day after a ceremony where he sacrifices the Achaeans twelve Trojan captives Achilles prays for assistance from the winds and lights Patroclus s pyre 0 The day after following the burial of Patroclus s bones Achilles holds a series of competitions in Patroclus s honor O Marvelous prizes are offered and both the commanders and the soldiers compete O The events include boxing wrestling archery and a chariot race which Diomedes wins with some help from Athena 0 Afterward Achilles considers taking the prize of the second place finisher Antilochus to give to the last place finisher whom Athena robbed of victory so that Diomedes could win 0 Antilochus becomes furious at the idea of having his prize taken from him 0 Menelaus then adds to the argument declaring that Antilochus committed a foul I After some heated words the men reconcile with one another Book 24 0 Achilles continues mourning Patroclus and abusing Hector s body dragging it around his dead companion s tomb 0 Apollo protects Hector s corpse from damage and rot Finally on the twelfth day after Hector s death Apollo persuades Zeus that Achilles must let Hector s body be ransomed O Zeus sends Thetis to bring the news to Achilles while Iris goes to Priam to instruct him to initiate the ransom Hecuba fears that Achilles will kill her husband but Zeus reassures her by sending an eagle as a good omen Priam sets out with his driver Idaeus and a chariot full of treasure O Zeus sends Hermes disguised as a benevolent Myrmidon soldier to guide Priam through the Achaean camp When the chariot arrives at Achilles tent Hermes reveals himself and then leaves Priam alone with Achilles O Priam tearfully supplicates Achilles begging for Hector s body 0 He asks Achilles to think of his own father Peleus and the love between them Achilles weeps for his father and for Patroclus 0 He accepts the ransom and agrees to give the corpse back That night Priam sleeps in Achilles tent but Hermes comes to him in the middle of the night and rouses him warning him that he must not sleep among the enemy O Priam and Idaeus wake place Hector in their chariot and slip out of the camp unnoticed 0 All of the women in Troy from Andromache to Helen cry out in grief when they first see Hector s body For nine days the Trojans prepare Hector s funeral pyre Achilles has given them a reprieve from battle 0 The Trojans light Hector s pyre on the tenth day
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