Week 6 Hum.Nutr.Chapter6.pdf
Week 6 Hum.Nutr.Chapter6.pdf 2210
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Monday October 6, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/14
Human Nutrition 2210 10614 157 PM Week Six Chapter Six Proteins Yield 4kca per gram BasicsNutritional QualityDigestion and Absorption Deficiency Diseases Proteins polymers of amino acids Must be digestedhydrolyzed into amino acids before being absorbed small intestine Used to make new proteins or convert to energy 20 of human body is protein Functions of Proteins other than providing energy Enzymes trypsinpepsin Storage ovalbuminferritin FE Transport hemoglobin oxygen Contractile actin myosin muscle movement Protective antibodies thrombin fight off Hormones insulin growth hormone blood glucose level Structure keratin collagen elastin Sources of Proteins Eggs milk legumes meat fish 4kca High quality protein that provides all essential amino acids for protein synthesis Amino acids Building blocks endless combination of 20 amino acids Genetic amino acid structure Nitrogen can get rid of N as body uses amino acids Peptide bond carbon nitrogen Strong not normally broken by cooking Bond between amino acids NH2 with COOH bond Essential amino acids Can make 11 amino acids essential Must consume the 9 amino acids that the body can39t make Some nonessential amino acids can become essential ex arginine Non essential becoming essential pregnancy Protein Synthesis DNA contains coded instructions Copies are transferred to cytoplasm via mRNA All or None concept Depletion ofjust one essential amino acid will prevent protein synthesis Need the proper amino acids to have protein synthesis occur High Quality Protein dietary proteins that contain all 9 essential amino acids Low Quality Protein dietary proteins that are lowlacking in one or more essential amino acids Limiting Amino Acid When necessary amino acids are present protein synthesis Even if one essential amino acid is missing protein synthesis stops Specific amino acid present in lowest quantity compared to need Ex creating a keep off the grass sign how many signs could you make if you only had certain amount of letters o The letter in the lowest quantityamount paying attention to the doubles Certain Foods are limiting amino acids Cereals corn rice wheat oat barely lysine Legumes oilseeds black bean peanut chickpeas soy green beans potato methionine Complementary Relationships by combining a protein deficient in a specific amino acid with a protein that has an excess of that amino acid protein quality is increased Additional Needs for Nitrogen Synthesis of pyrimidine s nucleic acids Synthesis of ATP Synthesis of porphyrin for oxygen binding proteins Does the kind of protein matter Carnivore meat eaters Omnivore plants animals Vegetarian no red meat Vegan no animal products YES the protein quality matters 0 We need the essential amino acids to have protein synthesis 0 Amino acid composition and digestibility Protein Quality Ideal protein all essential amino acids in the correct proportions for optimum rates of growth and maintenance Does such a food exist 0 Meat animal products Measuring Protein Quality 3 main ideas 0 Protein Efficiency Ratio PER 0 Net protein utilization NPU 0 Biological Value BV 0 Weight g gainedgram protein consumed 0 Weight gain measure of nutritional adequacy 0 PER values egg 390 ideal protein kidney beans 88 0 Ex feed egg to animal gains most weight Digestion of Protein in the Stomach Proteins are denatured by cooking and acid in the stomach Gastrin stimulates the release of acid and pepsin Pepsin is activated and breaks down proteins into peptones Digestion of Protein In Small Intestine Stimulates release of CCK Pancreas release enzymes typsin chymotrypsin carboxypeptidase into the duodenum for protein splitting Enzymes will break down peptones into smaller peptides and amino acids Peptides and amino acids are ready for absorption Protein Absorption Active absorption expend energy Whole proteins amino acids Amino acids are sent to liver via portal circulation 0 Whole proteins broken down at microvilli surface and within the absorptive cells Many different amino acid transport methods RDA for protein 8gm of proteinkg of healthy body weight Promotes equilibrium Increased by 10 15gmday for pregnancy Endurance athletes may need 15 2gmkg healthy body weight About 810 o of total kcals Most of us eat gt than RDA for protein Excess protein CAN39T be stored as protein in the body High Protein Diet Harmful Low in plant foods fiber vitamins phytochemicals Intake of animal protein increases risk for heart disease increase in saturated fat Excessive intake of red meat linked with colon cancer Burden on the kidney Increase calcium loss National Academy of Sciences recommended no more than 2X RDA for protein Protein energy malnutrition is fairly common worldwide Children and adults accounts for 6 million deaths annually Children are most at risk Kwashiorkor Sufficient calories but inadequate protein quantity or quality Symptoms bloated belly apathy mental retardation increased need for vitamin A Marasmus socio economic condition Deficient in both calories and protein Symptoms very low body weight and muscle waiting not enough calories the body breaks down muscle for energy 10614 157 PM 10614 157 PM