The Lymphatic and Immune System
The Lymphatic and Immune System BIOL O1113
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Hallenbeck on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL O1113 at Rowan University taught by Dr. Thomas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Biology: Human Focus in Biology at Rowan University.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Functions absorb excess interstitial fluid and return it ot eh blood stream absorb fats in the form of lipoproteins and transport them to the blood stream Distribution maintenance and production of lymphocytes Helps defend the body against pathogens Take lymph to the cardiovascular veins in the shoulder o Lymph is the colorless fluid in lymph vessels Lymphatic capillaries join to form lymphatic vessels before they enter either the thoracic or right lymphatic duct 0 Red Bone Marrow I Produces blood cells including T and B lymphocytes I B lymphocytes mature here 0 Thymus I Produces hormones such as thymosin which aids in the maturation ofT lymphocytes I T lymphocytes migrate from the bone marrow to the thymus to mature o Spleen I Red pulp filer blood 0 Lymph nodes I Filter lymph I Contain sinuses where lymphocytes and macrophages reside I Lymphatic nodules are lymph tissue not surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue Tonsils 0 First to encounter pathogens Peyer patched located in the intestinal wall and appendix 0 Encounter pathogens that enter the GI tract Innate immunity is fully functional without previously encountering a pathogen In humans it s the first line of defense is a physical and chemical barrier I Skin I Epithelial linings of the respiratory digestive and urinary systems I Skin produces an acidic secretion that impair bacterial growth I Tears sweat and saliva contain lysozyme I Acidic pH of stomach inhibits growthkills bacteria I Normal flora The second line of defense is the inflammatory response 0 Four hallmark symptoms caused by capillary changes I Redness I Swelling I Heat I Pain 0 Mast cells release histamine in response to tissue damage Stimulates arterioles in the infected tissue to dilate which increases the temperature of the wound Dilates and increases the permeability of the capillaries Swelling results from plasma leaking into injured tissues 0 Neutrophils arrive I Most common type of white blood cells I Communicate with other cells via Cytokines attract monocytes o Prolonged inflammation can be damaging to joints 0 Circulate in the blood and are activated when the body is invaded by bacteria I Can form a membrane attack complex MAC I The complex embeds in the bacterial plasma membrane and causes cell lysis I Work with bacteria are a group of proteins released by cells infected by viruses 0 They travel to other virus infected cells where they inhibit viral replication 0 Work with virus 0 Can also be used to treat certain viruses ex hepatitis 0 Neutrophils o Macrophages o Lymphocytes 0 Police the body via blood and lymph o Lyse and kill cancer cells virus infected cells Chemicals released primarily by macrophages exposed to bacteria 0 pyrogens produce fever by working with hypothalamus 0 Increased body temperature lower iron availability decreasing bacterial replication are substances that trigger an immune response 0 Protein molecules called Major Histocompatibility Complexes present antigens to cells of the immune system Rely on lymphocytes with specific antigen receptors Also can be called Humoral immunity Contain receptor called B cell receptors BCR Through clonal expansion antigens select B cells then the B cell reproduces 0 Most become plasma cells which secrete antibodies I Undergo programmed cell death when no longer in use 0 Some become memory cells which provide long term immunity Also known as is the most abundant in blood bind pathogens toxins is found on the surface of immature B cells triggers inflammation protects against parasitic infections primary immunoglobulin in exocrine gland secretions 1st produced by newborns 1st secreted during primary immune response It activates complement and clumps cells Every plasma cell derived form the same B cell secretes antibodies against the same an gen Monoclonal antibodies can be created in vitro by exposing them to an antigens and fusing them with a cancer cell 0 Usually fused with a cancerous B cell o Hybridomas 0 Can make also part of the immune system function Used for diagnosis cancer treatment T cells have T cell receptors 0 Only recognize antigen associated with Major Histocompatibility Complex MHC molecules I MHC molecules display both self and non self antigens Human MHC cells are called human leukocyte antigens HLAs I Antigen Presenting Cells APCs engulf antigen and display piece of them 0 The effector cells of the cell mediated immunity are I Basically make this part of the immune system work I Helper T cells or T4 cells Not on themselves attacking antigens but activate B cells and cytotoxic cells I Cytotoxic T cells or T8 cells 0 Clonal expansion 0 Helper TTh cells I Activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells I Attract white blood cells to the site of infection 0 Cytotoxic T Cells Tc I Directly attack and kill other cells Primarily attack viruses I Have which create large pores in the target cell s membrane Release granzymes o Create something called I Usually when cells get old I Cell suicide It results from infection of pathogen or vaccination o Vaccines contains an inactivated or weakened pathogens or genetically engineered proteins of pathogens 0 Antibodies are injected into the body 0 Antibodies are transferred from a mother to her baby are produced by white blood cells 0 Used in immunotherapeutic drugs Primary response is first time your body encounters a pathogen When T and B cells first encounter an antigen the primary response they react slowly The secondary response is rapid because of the production of primary response du ngthe Allergies are immune system overreaction to environmental substances called allergens 0 Immediate response is caused by IgE antibodies produced by plasma cells I IgE antibodies bind to mast cells which release histamine Histamine causes bronchioles to constrict resulting in asthma Histamines causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable causing blood pressure to drop In severe cases this can cause 0 Delayed response is caused by memory cells 0 Treatments I Antihistamines I Immunotherapy allergy shots Autoimmune disease result from an immune attack Tc cells or antibodies on the body s own cells Normal body proteins can be modified by environment or infection 0 They are no longer recognized as self by the immune system o chronically inflamed joints destruction of cartilage o Facial rash fever joint pain etc caused by anti DNA antibodies 0 Body forming anti bodies in your cells 0 antibodies interfere with neuromuscularjunctions o T cells attach myelin sheath Severe combined Immunodeficiency results from deficiency of an enzyme ADA 0 Lack of this enzymes causes a toxic substance to build up which kills lymphocytes 0 People affected with SCID have virtually no immune system 0 Treatment I Gene Therapy I Bone marrow transplant 0 Acquiredlmmunodeficiency Rejection caused by Tc cells 0 Prevented by immunosuppressive drugs Xenotransplantation is when a tissue organ form an animal used in a transplant Scientists have also created organs in the laboratory
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