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This 11 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Michelle Vaday on Monday October 6, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at University of California - Los Angeles taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/14
Anthro 33 Notes 1614 Types of academic articles Literature review Summarization of what others said Argument articles Speci c Bigpicture How to read an academic article Use study questions for guidance Abstract brief summary of argument Intro and conclusion Read through Who are they talking to Summarize for yourself Recheck study questions Exam 1 question from every reading and at least one question from every lecture Linguistic anthropology Anthro studies how people make sense of the world through language Form and display identities through language Language and communication as social resources Languages creates reality Imagine you re talking to a classmate and make plans to meet for coffee tomorrow if this person shows up and punches you in the arm and say hey kiddo creating a different relationship or hey you look great Do you call them by first name dude sir etc they create identity social positions the big 6 boundaries in groups and outgroups You re from a particular place part of some ethnic group you re a UCLA student you re part of a lot of different groups and they maintain identity by differentiation themselves with diff groups Usually by language Children boys and girls have same vocal range until puberty but boys speak lower girls speak higher National boundaries we speak a diff type of English than what they speak in Canada Canadians says aye We are diff from them a lot to do with language Academic discipline you leam very specialized words Slang differentiates age regional boundaries geography ex norcal say hella hierarchies rankings of language use Sense that some language are better for example proper English We try to think of standard and nonstandard rather than better or correct language The language use is connected to levels of social hierarchies Slang is usually thought of as being not proper Places the speaker in a hierarchy Performance implementation of knowledge accountability to audience for both form and content Knowledge about social roles Accountability how we say what we say is very important You are accountable to your audience for what you say and how you say it You speak differently to different people in different context You are in a certain sense on stage socially Ex a soldier talking to his commander but this same person performs a different identity to their family Performance is about communicative resources beyond language such as the way you dress assessment and monitoring paying attention to others own language use and evaluating When you meet someone for the first time you leam a lot of things by the way they speak For example you can tell the gender of someone when you meet them Is someone speaking standard English what can that get him or her or not get them Walk in and ask excuse me sir can you help me vs yo man I need some help Variation on all linguistic and social levels This is a constant We have variation on a regional level by profession age and any social group you can think of No individual speaks exactly the same as anyone else We measure distance in LA with time and not really how far it is Socialization becoming a member of a group Leaming to speak and communicate in ways that are appropriate In the military you will need to leam what certain commands are you have to be socialized in a different power structure Culture and communication 0 Language and communication broadly is social action Language isn t only about talking about things it also does stuff Communication is social action 0 Promising is a social actions Weddings the words that pronounce you man and wife etc that is social action Language is one of many semiotic resources 0 You can tell at a distance that someone is male or female by the way that they walk 0 3 Which communicate through indexicality The sense that we communicate things by pointing at them we are talking about how for example using higher pitch identi es females Word choice 2 slightly diff ways of saying the same thing For example both yo and excuse me get someone s attention but indexes your age if you re formal or informal Accents indexes regional identity 0 Different ways of saying the same thing carry different messages 11314 How do we analyze the date we have collected Transcription of recordings need to get it in some written form we can work with The Hepbum article talks about how to do this That article is just a reference used for the transcription we will be doing understand the general idea of how we do this Conversation analysis CA Looks at tuming take structure What is the difference between a pause between one person speaking and a pause when someone else can speak Analysis of participation frameworks A difference between someone who is being addressed directly rather than someone who is overhearing Consent and ethics Informed consent We do research with human beings there is a sense that a lot of behavior is inappropriate You need to tell people what you re studying that you re recording them With each step you need to make sure people consent Reciprocity More important in the longer term Need to remember that in the eldwork they are helping you Sometimes this means paying people In some cases it may be making sure that your research is available to the community Doing other favors for people Don t take advantage of people Confidentiality If you don t have permission to use peoples names faces then don t use them Can change names Objectivity and positionality How can this type of research be objective Objectivity is not possible Ethnographer is always positioned Need for explicit re exivity Ethnography as cultural mediation You have to mediate between 2 traditions Who are you How is this affecting what you re writing How does it affect your research Sometimes they will ask if you are planning to convert to a religion if that is what you are researching If you are doing research where you are very foreign of it see how people place you You want to understand how people who are different than you understand the world 11514 Notes on the video I love Lucy What kind of connections do you see We see hierarchy seen between different kinds of English Who sounds sillier in the video Lucy does There are different ways of speaking English and people are making judgments on them In Lebov article he talks about judgments of standard American English rather than nonstandard because standard uses unnecessarily big words Difference and variation CC 93 CC 93 0 say grammatical and ungrammatical 0 standard and nonstandard I is about a process of standardization I very few languages today are standardized everyone who studies language all agree that the study of language should be descriptive NOT prescriptive o prescriptive is about what you should and shouldn t say Language varieties a speci c form of language that s different from other forms of language language dialect usually talking about variety in a language 0 tends to be separated by geography race social class etc o in the video Ricky speaks in a different type of dialect 0 people who will interact with each other more closely will begin to speak in the same dialect accent talking about the sound elements of dialect o everyone speaks with an accent 0 when you re speaking a language not native to you you may have an accent register and style register is a variety used for a particular purpose or setting a scale of formality o Courtroom English is more formal than the English you speak with your friends 0 Style is about identity more than setting 0 The professor s style of lecture is different than her style when talking to her 1 on 1 All sorts of ways her style varies yet her register doesn t J argon special vocabulary used by people who work in the same area 0 Religious groups usually have special jargon o The army uses along of acronyms Slang nonstandard vocabulary usually subversive in some way 0 Ex hella lt s regional we associate it with northem Califomia lmplies a certain attention to being cool Over varieties e g codeswitching if you want to express you have 2 national identities 0 Ex Spanglish Shows the belonging to 2 groups at the same time Language or dialect Everyone in this room speaks in multiple varieties Difference between a language and a dialect o A language is a dialect with an army and a navy Max Weinreich Mandarin and Cantonese are dialects of Chinese but they have the same similarities of Spanish and French people Serbian and Croatian have a high percentage of overlap 0 We have a sense that this is political to a sense Sense of stigma that sometimes goes with the term dialect All language varieties Have certain things in common Are equally complex If you re a native English speaker it s easier to leam Spanish than Arabic Are equally good for communication No difference between standard and nonstandard English in this sense Can communicate any referential proposition Are structured and rulebound at every level Sounds phonology Word formation morphology 0 We can form one word from another certain things can and can t combine Grammar syntax Different names for the same thing AAVE African American Vemacular English BEV Black English Vemacular Ebonics introduced by black community AAE African American English Black English Black language These last 3 are better than saying vemacular 11714 More examples of variation In different dialects they have different social norms Ex the way formal emails are supposed to look Rules of formality in differ in dialects Variation can be on the social level when one person stops speaking and the other starts Personal space Standing in line on the bus Greetings vary a lot American speakers usually say hey what s up instead of hey how are you Video at the restaurant The guys are talking in a different way than the waitress They are being very literal in their language Are overannunciating their words The men are obnoxious Reference One of the many functions of language Linguistic form oriented towards a third person context or events Ex elephants are huge All the TA s are females in this class CA is a state We are talking about how language can communicate some sort of proposition Assumed to be primary function in EuroAmerican culture Idea that language is about communicating ideas from one person to another Not a onetoone mapping When you say my professor People can have more than one or say the professor is room 341 but other people share that room too There s not exactly one set of words that can refer to a particular thing Language and thought Linguistic relativity hypothesis SapirWhorf hypothesis Edward Sapir 18841939 All language varieties are equally good but they have different levels of logic Benjamin Lee Whorf 18971941 He sees differences in behavior that he can contribute to differences in language Linguistic Determinism Extreme form of relativity Language determines how we see the world How could we test this Suggests that bilingualism and translation and crosscultural communication are futile Linguistic relativity Weaker form of relativity Whorf s examples who was also an insurance agent empty gasoline drums He noticed workers smoked around empty gasoline drums with more ammable vapors He made recommendations to use a different word because people think it s empty pool of waste water This was also ammable Hopi categories of time lt s less about what you can say and more about what you must say Linguistic relativity examples Yucatec Maya number and classifiers Here you don t have to mark plural on the noun but in American you do ex you can t say two box you have to say two boxes Guugu Yimithirr cardinal directions Australian language They will say the board is east of me rather than saying the board is behind me Gender and linguistic relativity We have more than one pronoun the pronoun we use depends on the person we are talking about Man uses he woman uses she We don t express gender for objects Grammatical gender all nouns are assigned arbitrarily into 2 or 3 categories pronouns are assigned by these categories Linguistic relativity metaphor In everyday language metaphor is pervasive If you say theories are buildings it implies ways of relating to theories that are not so obvious The idea that politics is war It may show it s acceptable to use force on a large scale That s someone is going to win and someone will loose Metaphors help us view one kind of experience in terms of another Metaphors imply theories about the world 12214 notes on the bud light commercial Use the word dude for everything See maletomale interaction By saying the word dude in a different way it can raise a different message Dude does a work of confrontation Pointing out masculinity or heterosexuality In the Kiesling article it talks a lot about how dude is used to be less confrontational Dude can be positive or negative Linguistic repertoire the totality of linguistic forms regularly employed in the course of socially significant interaction 0 all the linguistic forms regularly used in social interaction Talking about the linguistic resources that you have Individual or community 0 individual all of the resources that person has the varieties that one person speaks 0 different aspects of your repertoire get used for different purposes 0 ex as a server you might have more of a high bubbly voice when you wouldn t normally speak like that there are at least 31 languages spoken among the people in this classroom the community repertoire is not distributed evenly among us Multiple functions of language beyond reference several models of multifunctionality of language Jakobson s functions of language referential describes situation object or mental state I m sad ex for mental state and also focuses on the speaker expressive related to speaker ex I feel so embarrassed ouch directly to the speaker conative relates to addressee hey you put that down or when you call someone to use their name poetic relates to message for its own sake code not content I like Ike phatic opens maintains verifies or closes communication channel hey can you guys hear me in the back excuse me can I have a minute of your time metalinguistic describes or discusses language itself This class is metalinguistic because we are talking about language Talking about grammar rules or spelling rules Hyme s features of language referential stylistic or indexical differences that don t change referential meaning paralinguistic features body language voice pitch choice of language variety 0 you might use more technical language with a coworker word choice 0 it s about who you re talking to excuse me vs do you mind drunk vs inebriated 0 do not vs don t Mommy vs mother any level of language Performance implementation of knowledge doing something with language you have this repertoire and you re always actively making choices accountability to audience for both form and content speaking implies always speaking to an audience leaves room for creativity using your words to paint a picture he walked in vs he sauntered in combining two different words to say something such as Spanglish Participation you have a speaker and a hearer participation speaker animator the person who does the physical production ex interpreter author principal agent 0 ex in a movie We have an actor The person speaking isn t the one who wrote the script The character they are basing it off isn t really them Participation hearer rati ed o if they are supposed to be part of the conversation unratif1ed 0 not supposed to be part of the conversation I Ex If teacher addresses someone in the class they are ratified and the rest of the class is unratif1ed Eavesdroppers vs bystanders 0 Whether or not you re trying to hear something you weren t supposed to hear If you happen to hear it you re a bystander 12414 heteroglossia heteroglossia presence of multiple voices and varieties in a single language 0 words have avors examples dude laid back Califomian heterosexual male beget and Sabbath JudeoChristian walk and talk to the hand 19905 actionable and productize corporate Occupy leftist politics inequality Why study this Populations aren t homogeneous Language isn t homogeneous Language isn t neutral Heteroglossia and intersexuality intertexturality borrowing quoting or reworking of recognizable text examples 0 clueless and Emma o accio pencil 0 may the odds be in your favor Why study this what do people nd important Taken for granted that some texts are shared Proposals for Written Assignment due Jan 29 paragraph page long what are you planning to research all members of group listed asking questions what kind of things do you want to know about 12714 Notes on the video British and American people talk differently He cares a lot about how people talk and not so much about pronunciations There s a sense in which we have a British man drawing two communities He s making prescriptive claims about right and wrong Community as a unit of analysis as opposed to individuals how do we identify communities Physical boundaries social boundaries what do we mean by speech and community Size and Location I how large or small can a speech community be 0 Want something in between one person and the population of the whole world 0 If you want to think how a group of friends has a sense of identity look at a smaller group I must membership be de ned by location Can they be nested overlapping What members share I Does everyone need to have the same level of uency 0 When talking about big groups this isn t going to be the case In a classroom not everyone will speak all the languages uently I Is speaking the same variety enough 0 You have a sense of locality Speaking the same language variety will be enough especially if you re a minority Do speakers of ASL and other sign languages count as one or more speech communities How important are shared attitudes and evaluations Do we want to consider people of the same communities if they have ideas that are incorrect vs correct Ex If you think y all is wrong or right is that where we should draw the line This is another big question that scholars bring up when talking about communities Do members need to be aware Interactions between members I Must members have facetoface interaction How often I What about online or electronically mediated interactions All the readers of a website chat room etc I Are there different kinds of membership Do we want to say there are central members of communities and others are not so much Gumperz the speech community I Quote from this reading I people have to talk to each other 0 regular and frequent interactions by a means of shared body of verbal signs enough for communication 0 we have different norms for how we speak language across the world 0 share social norms about what is appropriate 0 he says you are part of several groups that speak in particular ways Variations of community speech community a group of people who speak the same way Anderson imagined community how do citizens come to experience the nation as a community You don t know everyone yet you have a sense that it s a community People come to see themselves as a community through shared reading including novels newspapers textbooks 0 But not everyone is literate or has access to readings Problems takes circulation for granted He just assumes that they all read the same books and it makes them feel like a community Spitulnik media and circulation how do citizens come to experience the nation as a community What if there s no shared language regular and frequent interaction vertically with mass media she s interested in intertextuality Buchotz community of practice most common for us de ning trait of community mutual engagement in an endeavor and shared repertoire the same goal that people are engaged in at the same time language is one variable among many connects language to the big picture doesn t take community for granted ex any kind of classroom we are engaged in this material have a certain kind of vocabulary to look at concepts sports teams people going to the same church a line in a grocery store and a group of roommates North campus vs south campus majors Very small groups People tend to be positive about the way their group speaks and talk negatively about the way other groups speak
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