Week 5 Notes: Chapters 10-11
Week 5 Notes: Chapters 10-11 301
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Deal on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 301 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. April South in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
CHAPTER 10 Social Behaviors Social Behaviors o Interactions with members of one s own species 0 Genetic basis subject to natural selection 0 Selection favors cohesive family groups and decreased violence 0 Not just animals Groups 0 Benefits 0 Dilution effect reduced probability of predation to a single animal in a group I Allows prey to spend less time watching for predators 0 Resource acquisition many individuals search for resources at one time more mates to choose from o Lek location where a group of animals put on a display to attract the opposite sex I Makes it easier to find mates I Males in leks have a higher percentage of successful matings 0 Costs 0 Noticeable usually doesn t outweigh bene ts of dilution effect 0 Sharing increased disease and parasites I Need more time to find food because you need more to feed a group 0 Aggression competition for resources Living With Other Conspecifics 0 Conspecific member of the same species 0 Territories area defended against the intrusion of others 0 Defense requires the use of more resources 0 Dominance hierarchy social ranking in a group determined through contests of strength or Skill 0 Occurs when it is impractical to defend territory and more practical to live with a group Types of Social Interactions o Donor individual directing behavior towards another 0 Recipient individual receiving behavior of a donor 0 Cooperation donor and recipient of a social behavior experience increased fitness 0 Selfishness donor of a social behavior has increased fitness and recipient has decreased fitness 0 Spitefulness social interaction decreases fitness for donor and recipient 0 Not found in nature 0 Only found in human populations 0 Altruism increased fitness of recipient decreased fitness of donor 0 One doesn t have to be alive to experience tness if the genes still get passed down Altruism 0 No direct fitness fitness gained by passing genes to offspring 0 Indirect fitness fitness gained by helping relatives pass on copies of genes 0 Must share same genes with relatives 0 Genes still passed on but not at 50 Inclusive fitness sum of direct fitness and indirect fitness Direct selection selection favoring direct fitness Indirect kin selection favors indirect fitness Coef cient of relatedness numerical probability of an individual and relatives carrying copies of the same genes from a recent common ancestor Indirect Fitness Benefit 0 Compares direct fitness benefit to indirect fitness benefit B benefit to recipient relative C direct fitness cost to donor r coefficient of relatedness between donor and recipient Indirect fitness benefit Br Altruism favored when 0 Br gt C o CB lt r Eusocial Animals 0 Extreme social relationships 0 4 Characteristics 0 Several adults living together in a group 0 Overlapping generations of parents and offspring living together in the same group 0 Cooperation in nest building and brood care 0 Reproductive dominance by 1 or a few individuals and presence of sterile individuals Hymenoptera 0 Bees ants wasps termites 0 Caste groups with specialized behavior 0 Queen dominant egglaying female 0 Mates once with a lot of offspring o Haplodiploid sex determination system in which q sex is haploid and one is diploid 0 Workers diploid sterile I Development stops before sexual maturity o Drones haploid unfertilized reproducers 0 Creates asymmetry in coefficients of relatedness Origins of Eusociality 0 Evolution different among groups o Haplodiploid 0 Cost of leaving V cost of foregoing reproduction CHAPTER 11 Population Distributions Distributions of Populations 0 Spatial structure pattern of density and spacing of individuals 0 Fundamental niche range of abiotic conditions in which a species can exist 0 Theoretical o Predatorsavailability of resources can prevent this from existing 0 Possible niche o Realized niche range of biotic and abiotic conditions in which an organism can exist 0 Actual niche 0 Geographic range total area covered by population 0 Individuals don t occupy all area in geographic range Ecological Niche Modeling 0 Ecological niche modeling process of determining suitable habitat conditions for a species 0 Ecological envelope range of ecological conditions predicted to be suitable for a species 0 Prediction of where a species could potentially live different from realized niche 0 Uses 0 Modeling invasive species 0 Demonstrate effects of global warming 0 Population increases in more suitable niches Population Distribution Characteristics 0 Geographic range 0 Endemic live in a single isolated location 39 Susceptible to natural disasters 0 Cosmopolitan large geographic ranges that span several continents I Affected less by natural disasters 0 Abundance number of individuals existing in a defined area 0 Tells if a species is thriving or threatened 0 Density number of individuals per unit area 0 If greater than what the habitat can support individuals will leave causing low growth 0 Dispersion spacing of individuals with respect to each other within their geographic range 0 Clustered dispersion individuals form discrete groups 0 Evenly spaced dispersion individuals maintain uniform distances 0 Random dispersion position of each individual is independent of other individuals I Not common in nature 0 Dispersal movement of individuals from their habitat of origin 0 Individuals typically do not return to original habitat 0 Individuals move between and colonize suitable habitats 0 NOT migration which is seasonal o Emigration and immigration Quantifying Individuals 0 Census counting every individual 0 Survey counting population subset 0 Used to estimate abundance density and distribution of population 0 Areavolume based surveys define boundaries of areavolume and count all individuals in that space 0 Markrecapture survey researchers capture and mark a population subset and then capture a second sample after time initially captured marked recaptured population size n total captured 0 Line transect survey counts number of individuals observed moving along a line Quantifying Dispersal 0 Measure how far individuals travel from 1 location 0 Marked and recaptured 0 Lifetime dispersal distance average distance individual moves from where it originated to where it reproduces o A few individuals can greatly increase a population s dispersal 0 Estimates how quickly population increases geographic range Population Characteristic Correlations 0 Abundance and geographic range positive correlation 0 Resource availability uctuation with geographic range 0 Density and body size negative correlation 0 Less space and resources Dispersal o Dispersal limitation absence of population from suitable habitat because of barriers to dispersal o Barriers inhospitable habitat 0 Habitat corridor strip of favorable habitat located between 2 patches of habitat that facilitates dispersal 0 Most species that disperse do not establish a viable population Ideal Free Dispersion 0 Based on per capita benefit 0 Ideal free distribution individuals distribute themselves among different habitats in a way that allows them to have the same per capita benefit 0 Assumes we all know about other habitats o Predators or territory owners can prevent 0 Living in high quality habitats increase reproductive success Models of Spatial Structure 0 When individuals disperse a lot among subpopulations Whole populations function as a Whole 0 Subpopulations large population broken into smaller groups living in isolated patches 0 Abundance changes in subpopulations are based on dispersal 0 3 models 0 Basic metapopulation model describes a scenario in Which there are patches of suitable habitat embedded Within a matrix of unsuitable habitat I Assumes all suitable patches are equal I How colonization and extinction affect number of suitable patches 0 Sourcesink metapopulation model builds upon basic metapopulation model and accounts for the fact that not all patches of suitable habitat are of equal quality 39 Source population come from high quality habitats and serve as source of dispersion on a metapopulation 39 Sink population comes from a low quality habitat and relies on outside dispersers to maintain a subpopulation 0 Landscape metapopulation model considers differences in quality of suitable patches and quality of surrounding matrix