Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes H_D_FS 1610 - 01
Popular in Intimate Relationships and Marriage
Popular in Human Development
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Chapter 4 Men and Women Gay and Straight Sex refers to whether an individual is a male or female biologically Gender refers to a person s nonbiological and nonphysiological attributes characteristics and behaviors that are viewed as masculine or feminine It also refers to haw they dress their feelings and expressions Biological sex is xed Gender is more uid Primary Sex Characteristics refer to the biological differences that males and females are born with eg diff chromosomes sex hormones internal structures external genitalia Secondary Sex Characteristics refer to the biological differences that develop over time eg breasts ner skin musculature for males joining Nature and Nurture Tertiary Sex Characteristics refer to the behaviors that are learned from historical social and cultural circumstances Sex Differences and Sex Similarities pp 138 Men are amore physically and verbally aggressive than women Women are more skilled at expressing than men men are more prone to making intrusive interruptions Women are more likely than men to seek out emotional support as a means of cooping and to dwell on the difficulties they are facing When selecting mates women are more likely to emphasize the partner s social class and ambitiousness men are more likely to prioritize physical attractiveness Women are morel likely to feel anxious guilty and fearful about sex Men tend to have more positive orientations toward sexual intercourse in an established relationship and to an even greater degree in casual relationships Nature is evolved or inherited biological substrates for human adaptation and behavior often contrasted with nurture or changes that result from the environment and socialization Nurture is the effects on human adaption and behavior that result from experiences with the environment including socialization typically contrasted with nature Nature Explanation We posses features eg thumbs color vision sweat glands etc because we were given them by nature All these changes happened gradually overtime TO understand the differences in males and females lntrasexual competitions are the ways men and women compete with other members of their own sex to gain advantage in the mating marketplace Nurture Explanation Men and women differ in responsibilities because of social expectations We use gender as a base for expectations for people s behaviors Some behaviors are acceptable for males or females but not both males and females Societal pressure help explain gender differences in behavior rather than genes The social structural theory is an explanation for psychological and behavioral differences between women and men based on physical specialization of the sexes division of labor social construction of gender and local economies Power is an individual s capacity to alter the behavior and experiences of others while also resisting the in uence of others Empathic accuracy is the capacity for one person to be accurate in knowing what someone else is thinking or feeling joining Nature and Nurture Men and women both have equal needs to belong an to experience relationships and intimacy and to have these needs met SEE PAGE 142 Sex Role Identity Finding the Individuals in the Categories Sex role identity The way that people view themselves in terms of masculine and feminine traits is referred to as their sex role identity May be high or low in masculinity May be high or low in femininity Androgynous are individuals who are high in both masculine and feminine traits Feelings of loss constrained by the rolesexpectations associated with either gender High levels of selfesteem Lower levels of anxiety Higher levels of emotional intelligence Higher levels of attachment Females and males want many of the same things in relationships Some males tend to think of intimacy more in physical terms while females tend to think of it in terms of communication Schemas are cognitive categories that organize ideas and beliefs about certain concepts Sex Gender and Intimacy Females tend to be more interested in and invested in relationships Males tend to be quotfirst in and last outquot Relationship Endings Females are likely to Be attuned to relationship problems Offer higher quality support to partners Initiate seeking therapy End Relationship Sex and Security Men and women differ in sexual openness Sexual regrets differ across gender American attitudes about sex are more conservative than other countnes Sexual Behavior Motivations for sex Emotional Physical Pragmatic lnsecurhy 21 or women 32 of men report in delity Permissiveness Sexual Variety vs emotional connection Same Sex Relationships 41 of the total population identi es as LGBT 20 of samesex couples are raising a child under 18 quotComparisons between samesex and differentsex relationships are relatively few in the scienti c literature but the studies that do exist make it clear that these relationships are more similar than different I09 164 quot Higher rates of dissolving relationships for same sex couples may be due to the absence of the legal cultural supports that help different sex couples stay together when the have problems Profound differences in the social context in which gay and lesbian people discover their sexual identity form connections with partners and present their relationship to pothers affect their wellbeing and their chances for successfully managing their relationship Sexual Minorities are individuals who do not identify themselves as primarily and exclusively straight in their sexual orientation gay men and lesbians Monogamy is the practice of sexual and emotional exclusivity in an intimate relationship Same sex couples are more likely to continue a friendship In Conclusion Males and females share more similarities than differences The cumulative effect of many small differences between sexes adds up to produce different expectations We cannot understand intimate relationships unless we go beyond the sex of partners involved