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POLS Chap 7 Notes

by: Kyla Brinkley

POLS Chap 7 Notes POLS 1101

Kyla Brinkley
GPA 3.8
American Government
Ryan Bakker

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Detailed notes for chapter 7 of the book! Perfect to follow along and keep up in class in order to supplement the powerpoints!
American Government
Ryan Bakker
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyla Brinkley on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Ryan Bakker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/29/15
Kyla Brinkley POLS 1101 Notes Fall 2015 Bakker l Chapter 7 The Presidency a The Historical Presidency i Energetic presidency avoids a napoleon ambitious person who would use the temporary advantages conferred by a national crisis to permanently alter the constitutional order ii Executive has enough resources for coordinating national responses during emergencies but insufficient authority to usurp the Constitution 1 President has power during national urgency iii 19th century all federal employees were appointed directly by pres or one of his agents iv The Era of Cabinet Government 1 19th century congress routed all matters related to administration amp policy through the appropriate department secretary President consulted cabinet for info on agency heads performances amp advice on whether to veto or sign bills Strong cabinet didn t mean strong pres a lntersecting interests Cabinet members were likely to pursue own politicalpolicy objectives as well as presidents Partnership based on reciprocity not loyalty a Cabinet helped president achieve limited political goals president let them pursue their agendas 6 19th century politicians cabinet was steppingstone to white house 7 Today s politicians cabinet is end of career v Parties amp Elections 1 18005 party that won state s presidential contest usually gained control of all other offices on the cket a Party that controlled presidency controlled congress too 2 Pres also had little media coverage other than elections back then compared to now a Congress was in media more 3 Pres candidates more valued for popular appeal than policy a Candidates w little gov experience had advantage over established politicians b Ex military heroes Jackson Taylor Grant c Pres glorified clerk b The Modern Presidency i National gov grew dramatically throughout 20th century ii Modern presidency is product of changing place of Washington in national amp world affairs iii Legislation creatingrevamping programs gives pres statutory authority to oversee amp make changes in policy iv Congress seeks guidance in making annual budgetsreauthorizing programs v Constitution designates presidents to take Care that the Law be faithfully executed vi Divided government pits president against an opposition party that controls 1 or both chambers of Congress Common today 1 For most of history party control was unified pres party controlled congress too 2 Pres relies more on constitutional amp other resources a Veto b Executive orders c Centralized administration d Assertions of executive privilege vii Increase in delegations of authority and responsibility viii The President as Commander in Chief and Head of State 1 The Commander in Chief constitution declares pres to be commander in chief of the armed forces Check only Congress can declare war a Presidents often commit troopsengage in hostilities then go to Congress for authority to con nue b Legislature may have little choice but to ratify president s decisions c After confederate firing on Fort Sumter 1861 Lincoln suspended writ of habeas corpus that prevented Union Army from detaining civilians suspected of spying or opposing war effort and didn t consult congress d Congress s authority to declare war has become hollow check on president s initiative i Korean war amp Vietnam were never formally declared e War Powers Act 1973 approved over Nixon s veto Law requires president to inform congress within 48 hours of committing troops abroad in a military action Operation must end in 60 days unless congress approves extension 2 Head of State a A of C found it hard to transact foreign affairs b Framers gave president broader authority in diplomatic affairs than with the domestic front c Most important limitation on president s leadership in foreign affairs is requirement that 23 majority of Senate ratify treaties i Famous Senate rejected Woodrow Wilson s League of Nations d To sidestep treaty rejections presidents sometimes negotiate executive agreements exempt from Senate ratification Statements of understanding between the administration amp a foreign gov i Can t supersede US law ii Congress can pass laws to remove them iii Ex NAFTA ix The President as Chief Executive 1 section 2 of constitution president may appoint the officers of gov by amp with the Advice amp Consent of the Senate Majority confirmation vote 2 Take care clause section 3 of Constitution president may require the Opinion in writing of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments a take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed 3 In leaving the creation of several departments the Framers also gave that bod the authority to define the president s role as chief executive 4 ln 1800s congress kept president at bay by insisting that executive agencies report directly to congressional over sign committees 5 Delegation a Congress shares many lawmaking powers with the president b In writing public laws Congress can choose to delegate more or less rulemaking authority to the president i Too little freezes policy may leave rigid programs ii Too much surrenders control over important decisions that could change legislation s intent c Congress delegates to gain political advantage d Pass the buck congress finds political advantage in delegating to pres broad responsibility for policies that might have politically unattractive outcomes Hope to avoid blame e Executive is separate branch of gov insulated from congressional control f Pres rarely views role as congress s agent 6 Executive Orders a Until 19003 presidents didn t intrude into administrative practices i Congress oversaw bureaucracy b Executive order a presidential directive to an executive agency establishing new policies or indicating how an existing policy is to be carried out i Has force of law until pres or successor retracts it congress nullifies it or federal court rules that it violates Constitution or federal law ii Most arise from authorityresponsibility explicitly delegated to president by law iii Establish executive branch agencies iv Modify administrative rulesactions v Change decision making procedures vi Give substanceforce to statutes vii Some are based on president s assertions of constitutional authority 7Budge ng a b C clerical tasks Send congress annual budget for all federal programs Opportunity to set spending priorities of federal gov 1921 Budget amp Accounting Act gave pres responsibility for compiling budgets from the executive depts amp submitting them to lawmakers as single package i Strengthened pres role in national policymaking Pres annual budget is submitted to Congress 1St Monday in February i Technicalpolitical info ii Sometimes accepted with minor changes sometimes ignored 8 Centralized Administration a Institutionalized presidency developed 1930s A set of offices amp staff were created to assist the president Staff would continue to grow in number amp scope of activity Through delegation congress has pushed work toward the presidency along with discretionary authority amp responsibility Gag rule extended by Taft to cover congressional action of any kind amp barred workers from responding to congressional requests for information except as authorized by their dept heads d Executive order by FDR all dep communications to congress that could affect future budgets must first be cleared as consistent with president s policy by Bureau of the Budget predecessor for today s office of Management amp Budget OMB e Central clearance standard procedure for agency officials heading to Capitol Hill to give testimony i Has strengthened president s hand in national policy ii Stops officials from casually expropriating president s endorsement for their legislative initiatives iii Alerts white house earl to attempted end runs where an agency seeks more moneyauthority than president wants 9 Unitary Presidency a When pres tries to extend influence unilaterally by issuing controversial executive orders opponents are quick to say he is trying to have imperial presidency elected monarch with aides to do his bidding i Unfair label ii Ex Nixon s impoundment orders b Unitary executive when a president claims prerogative to attach signing statements to bills amp asserts hisher right to modify implementation or ignore altogether provisions of a new law that encroaches on hisher constitutional prerogatives as the chief executive or as commander in chief i pres may remove all subordinates in exec Branch ii pres may direct subordinates to take a particular action iii pres can veto any objectionable actions including those mandated by Congress iv if unitary executive doctrine prevailed president could remove any requirements etc that federal law places on heads of federal departmentsagencies v signing statements statements that presidents would attach to legislation as he signed it into law now that congress and the pres are usually different parties competing the division of authority between the branches is more significant vi x The President as Legislator 1 2 President has modest role in legislative arena Can call congress into special session rare congress almost always in session 3 Veto laws passed by congress 4 5 Growth in president s administrative duties has Reports to legislative branch on state of the Union ensured that congress will give pres legislative proposals serious consideration Presidents and their appointees who administer federal agencies have informational advantage shown in all delegation that gives advantage when proposing legislation a Pres can improve chances of legislative success by selectively withholding info from legislators Opposition partisans in Congress recognize that president s legislative success might debit their vote count in the next election Opposition party members have chance to defeat administration when they disagree with its policies and coopt credit for passage of those initiatives that they agree with a O republican votes for health care bill 2010 Big programs passed when presidents had huge majorities in congress a FDR new deal early 1930s b LBJ great society mid 1960s 10 Gridlock a legislative traffic jam often precipitated by divided gov occurs when presidents confront oppositioncontrolled congresses with policy preferences amp political stakes that are in direct competition with their own amp those of their party Neither side is willing to compromise gov accomplishes little federal operations may even come to a halt a Can also occur when both sizes recognize a policy problem that entails an unpopular solution 11 The Veto a Most formidable tool in dealing with congress b Pres Gerald Ford 197477 has veto record 66 bills Only 12 overridden c Lineitem veto a procedure available in 1997 for first time permitting pres to cancel amounts of new discretionary appropriations budget authority as well as new items of direct spending entitlements amp certain limited tax benefits unless Congress disapproves by law within a specified period of time Declared unconstitutional in 1998 d Pres usually commits in advance to veto a bill i to be effective veto threat must be credible ii show they aren t bluffing and will veto if congress doesn t accommodate them iii Threat must be explicit amp public political embarrassment if back down iv Costly v Risk 12 Mobilizing Public Opinion a Until early 1900s presidents satisfied constitutional obligation to report state of the Union by conveying message to congress i Officer of congress read it to an inattentive audience ii State of the Union address a message to Congress under constitutional directive that the president shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary amp expedient 1 big prime time televised affair today b going public engaging in intensive public relations to promote the president s policies to the voters amp thereby induce cooperation from other elected officeholders in Washington 1 presidents view going public as a viable alternative to negotiating with the opposition on Capitol Hill c today presidents devote a great deal of timeenergy appealing directly to the American people for support for themselves amp their policies i harder because today cablesatellite tv provides alternatives to listening to presidents address ii in 1960s there were 3 tv stations that changed programming for pres no choice other than to turn off tv iii communicates in other ways 1 appearances 2 travel d president s leadership of public opinion rests on public s appraisal of him as president i when unpopular president issues public appeals citizens inclined to ignore him amp suspect base motives for his appeal xi The Institutional Presidency 1 Detailed staff staff from another gov agency intended to assist the White House 2 Brownlow report report issues in 1937 by the president s committee on administrative management that likened the president to the chief executive officer of a large corporation amp concluded that the president needed a professional staff a Executive office of the President EOP a collection of agencies that help the president oversee department amp agency activities formulates budgets amp monitor spending craft legislation amp lobby Congress Major components established in 1939 by FDR include the White House Office Office of Management amp Budget National Security Council Council of Economic Advisors White House Office Agency in the Executive Office of the President EOP that serves as the president s personal staff system Although the entire EOP does the president s business the White House staff consists of the president s personal advisors who oversee the political amp policy interests of the administration Gave pres more control over policies but at heavy cost of having to personally manage decisions that otherwise would ve been delegated to professionals in the bureaucracy National Security Council NSC the highest advisory body to the president on military amp diplomatic issues Established 1947 In EOP Helps pres coordinate the actions of government agencies including the State amp Defense Departments amp the Joint Chiefs of Staff into a single cohesive policy for dealing with other nations Largestmost important presidential agency is Office of Management amp Budget i Staffed by accountants economists tax lawyers ii Creates annual federal budget monitors agency performance compiles recommendations from departments on enrolled bills bills that have been passed in identical form by both houses of Congress amp presented to the president for his signature and performs central clearance over agencies communications with Congress f National Security Council NSC compiles reports amp advice from the State amp Defense Departments amp Joint Chiefs of Staff amp keep pres informed on international affairs g White house staff is larger than ever i 450 full time positions ii 13 tends to public relations iii in early years staff was smaller and informally organized iv through staff competition Roosevelt solved dependency problem that afflicts all principals who rely on agents for infoadvice h Chief of staff system the means by which a chain of command is imposed on the president s staff The system clarifies responsibilities amp shields the president from having to micromanage the staff s routine activities c Presidents as Strategic Actors More responsibilityauthority bigger staffing system greater capacity to speak to public than Framers imagined Still have checks and balances Modern problems Demands of office continue to exceed resources available to incumbents to meet them


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