Midterm CON 101
Popular in Culture of Construction
Popular in Construction and Management
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Walber Martins on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CON 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Ernzen in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Culture of Construction in Construction and Management at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Preface 8252009 44500 PM There is an inseparable connection between the constructions and the builders 0 Structures depend on the stage of human development in which they were built Ancient structures are still around What should we learn from them 0 Construction materials 0 Construction Methods Built environment 0 Everything that has been built by humans buildings power plants bridges roads canals dams tunnels etc 0 Automobiles trains etc not included because they are not structures Expresses 0 Religious Beliefs Social Mores Political State Economic Conditions Mental Capacity 0000 o TechnicalCapabilities Did technology drive humans or did humans drive technology 0 Both Innovations came from non master builders o Churchman 8L politician who figured out pointed arch 0 John McAdambusinessmancame up with economical way to build roads 0 Gravel road was pinnacle of technology when it came into existence 0 Gardener reinforced concrete with steel 0 Joseph Aspdin came up with Portland cement Construction accounts for 93 10 of the GDP Buildings always built for a need 0 Athletic Stadiums Built for same reason as coliseum o Freeways and interstates need for increased speed and travel created interesting buildings to attract customers 0 Houses in America high tech and secluded Never have to see another human being In order to understand why something was built you need to understand the culture that built it o Pyramids o Coliseum o Roads Construction Projects 0 Infrastructure 0 Bridges 0 Water Supply 0 Roads 0 Tunnels o Dams o PrivateReligious 0 Buildings 0 Funerary What we ll learn 0 Site selection 0 Operational Sequence 0 Equipment used c Conveyance methods 0 Safety standards 0 Ethics 0 Building codes Building Techniques 0 Materials Equipment La bor Needs of satiety State of economy Technical Development Ch 1 The Evolution Of Civilization and Culturess252009 44500 P Humans began making tools around 400000 years ago Homo sapiens evolved 30000 to 40000 years ago 0 First shelters were holes in the sides of mountains o No construction required for the caves 0 Fires kept the inside warm and the outside out o No construction required time to fish and hunt Ice age drove Humans to southern Europe where there were grassy lands watered by glacial run off and plenty of animals 0 2 main tribes arose Aurignacians amp Magdalenians Surplus of food in paeolithic era 0 Caves provided excellent shelter warm in winter cool in summer Leisure time acquired from not having to devote all time to hunting resulted in innovations in tools and construction 0 Discovered the principals of energy and leverage and how to use them 0 Possibility to move to higher standard of living but humans didn39t because they were comfortable and saw no need to change Paeolithic era changes 0 Irrigation was understood 0 Animals were domesticated 0 First as food source 0 Thousands of years before animals became work animals 0 Men replaced women as laborers o explosion in development of building technology 0 Beginnings of migration Climate change caused dramatic changes in southern Europe and forced the Aurignacians amp Magdalenians to move to different places to follow the game 0 Climate Changes 0 Ice Melted o Glaciers retreated o Rains came 0 Game moved north 0 Forced to move to southeastern Europe where there were no caves to take shelter in o Forced to build huts to live in Huts had chimney s a technology that did not reappear until 30000 years later 0 Comfort became a goal in dwellings Oldest ma nmade structure 0 25000 BC in Russia 0 39 x 10 communal dwelling 0 Used by roving hunters 0 Protected by 6ft wall 0 Significant features 0 Sunk 10ft with ramps 0 Walls lined with timbers 0 Roof log covered with earth 0 Hearth with hood amp chimney Northern Africa 0 After 100000 years 0 People began to farm Early Humans were domesticated socialized and humanized 0 Changed from hunter gathers to farmers 0 Wanted social situations sought companionship 0 First civilization formed in Jerico around 739800 bc 0 Beginning of Neolithic revolution 0 Near dead sea hot and dry 0 First permanent settlements o Introduced irrigation o Flimsy huts turned to dust 0 Older 6500 o Beehive houses built with pise Surrounded by masonry walls a Rectangular houses a Plaster and polished floors D Wood door frames 0 Women gathered wheat from wild fields 0 Used water to irrigate crops 0 Created Neolithic age new stone age Women did all the work while men sat around Second village Jarmo o 700 miles northeast of Jerico around 6500 bc 0 created Pis an early adobe 0 Used animal dung to hold mud together 0 Multiroomed rectangular houses 0 Used stone foundations 0 Some timber used in walls 0 Lasted about 2 generations 0 Led to the mounts or tells Knocked down old buildings to make room for new ones 0 Jerusalem is 100 feet higher now than the original city 0 40 siegesoccupationsdevastations o at least 8 Jerusalem built Hassuna 4500 BC 0 Rectangular houses 0 Courtyard with subsidiary buildings 0 Storage rooms 0 Used pise blocks for walls 0 Roof system 0 facines covered with thatching Tunisia 0 Still build rectangular houses Rectangular houses became the main building style Migration occurred after populations grew 0 Migrated to Europe and the rest of the continent Germanic farmers built houses out of wood that was accessible in the German forests 0 Original style used communal housing animals and humans lived under the same roof 0 Megaron Single family house with separate kitchen and bedroom 0 Emphasis on comfort European communal houses 4000 BC 0 Description 0 160 ft long 0 made mostly from timber o Steeply pitched roofs I Ridge poles Rafters I Columns 0 Divided into animals and human areas Animals lower than human area KolnLindenthal 0 Early city in Germany o Contained about 25 households 0 100150 villagers 0 Site abandoned every 10 years and left empty for 50 0 Soil erosion caused soil only to last 10 seasons before it was useless 0 Could not create surplus of food because 7 bushels of Wheat came per acre they needed 150200 acres to support a person 0 Wall surrounded village I Earth dirt burro Skara Brae 3000 BC Brought livestock farming tools and seed with them 0 Stone village in northern Scotland 0 Built buildings out of stone which was a technological breakthrough Roof corbelled stone that stuck out Rafters made from whale bone Walkways connected the 7 buildings 20 x 18 and there was a stone lined sewer system 4ft high stone door pivoted Furniture made of stone as well Harsh environment brought about great changes in civilization OOOOOO Fertile crescent 0 Between Nile and tigres and Euphrates 0 Created spark for civilization to exist 0 3500 bc Marshes drained in the river valley 0 Farmers designed an elaborate irrigation system I Required Dams canals and sluice gates to control water 0 Required cooperation and team work 0 Created the first surplus of food 0 Surplus created the first instance of trade 0 Food was traded for clothing tools and furniture I Roads were created in order to facilitate trade 0 Writing amp recording 0 Politics Sumerian Reed House 0 Built in TigrisEuprates delta 0 Built using reeds that were locally available I Tied into thick bundles called Facines I Used pise to fireproof the building 0 Held all the structural members required for the gothic and Romanesque cathedrals thousands of years later Politicians 0 Once trading became widespread someone needed to step in and take over organizing the city 0 Organizers came from priests in the village 0 Public works required money so taxation was introduced 0 Or time required Intellectual pursuits became widespread because of the reduced need to hunt 0 Writing and arithmetic were created 0 Geometry and astrology came into existence thus creating the possibility for grander buildings pyramids 0 Geometry came from surveying Americas 9000 BC 0 Humans crossed the Bering Strait Land Bridge around 9000 BC 0 No great civilizations arose in the Americas due to the hunter gatherer nature of people 0 Civilization arose in the Olmecs Mayans Aztec and Incas o Olmecs bottom of mexico 0 Myans pyramids Cancon 0 Tracked sun and moon 0 Laid out pyramid NSEIW o Equinox snake moves to the ground Aesthetics 0 Once comfort was accomplished beauty was the key driving force People Settled in cities as more and more people moved away from hunter gatherer lifestyle EgypUan o Urbs city or urban Greek Politikos civic or civilization 0 Polis city 0 Materpolis o Mega polis Misc 0 Burg a fortified place English 0 Grad Same but Russian The Great civilizations were not developed haphazardly Progress 8 innovation are distinctive characteristics of humanity A process of growth at gain a search for knowledge understanding stability Conductor constructor 0 Composer Designer 0 Constructor makes designer s ideas come alive Qualities of Constructor 0 Intuition o The ability to know something without having to be taught if I The ladder against the wall I Plank Across Stream I Length of well bucket Innovativeness 0 Introducing something new o Something that builders have been reluctant to do I If it fails people die 0 Creativity Inventiveness ingenuity o Add them up and they equal resourcefulness o Kite over Niagara falls example 0 Alcan highway example Owner establishes need 0 Phases 0 Design Phase 0 Building Phase 0 The Designer 839 builder were the same at first 0 Origins of the architect and the master builder 0 Imhotep Emergence of the specialist 0 Why the need to change 0 Complexity of construction increased 0 Architect 2 aesthetic designer 0 Engineer structural designer Complexity of building process led to constructor coming in to consult Builder responsibilities 0 Labor Force 0 Site Access 0 Necessary equipment and tools 0 Provide falsework 0 Site utilities 0 Permits 8L inspection Builder knowledge 0 Must understand the process 0 Know material properties 0 Measure performance of trades 0 Know quality Non builder responsibilities 0 Financing 0 Site selection criteria Designer what must be done Constructor how to do it 8252009 44500 PM 8252009 44500 PM Globe Theater 0 Built 1599 o Burnt down in 1613 o Rebuilt but destroyed because of XXX plays being preformed 0 First Step go into forest and select trees 0 Mortison and tenon joints 0 Held together with pegs o Rebqu o Prefabricated o Reproduction of original brick and held together with lime mortar 0 Walls oak staves covered with plaster Cow hair added to make stronger Fewer seats More exits Added sprinklers over thatch Fire proof boarding under thatch QUIZ code 0 10 min time limit 0 5 questions 0 Sparky password OOOO USE146 8252009 44500 PM lack of recorded information e not much written on how 0 created social dichotomyquot lack of scholarly respect 0 Construction Bad image Require education for general public What we do have information on o Aesthetics 0 Beauty 0 Proportion o Expressiveness 0 Materials 0 Sources and proportions Beavers 0 Build den and dam Leave opening at top Living area above water Underwater entrance Darn blocks streams Other beavers come help with repairs and construction cooperative OOOOO Pa per Wasp 0 Build nests o Honeycomb shape 0 How does the wasp know what shape to make 0 Material I Takes wood fibers chews it up mixes it with chemicals from body spits out practically paper Bauer Bird 0 Builds Bauer attracts female 0 Decorates nest with shells feathers etc o Paints the inside I Eats berries and spits out on paint brush Ba rd Swallows 0 Ball mud an stack it up to build nest o Adds Straw to hold together Tailor Bird 0 Pokes holes in nest and then pulls fiber through and knots the fiber Shipworm o Eats hole through wood 0 Secretes White stuff 0 Thames Tunnel 0 Used shipworm secreting method I Laid brick behind digging Spider and the fly 0 Fly weighs 20 times the weight of the spider 0 Uses trig to lift fly Hydrogenisis o Hydro Water 0 Genesis 2 to create 0 Stack up a pile of rocks in pyramid shape 0 Could produce gallons a day Granary o Dries grain by having multiple levels to evaporate moisture Conclusions 0 Construction is dynamic 0 Many how s I Resourcefulness I Intensiveness Creativeness e We continue to learn by 0 Using speculation and logic 0 recreating 8252009 44500 PM Hammurabi s code 0 22922008C o If a builder builds a house for anyone an does not complete if firmly and the house that he built collapses and kills the owner then the builder shall be put to death FaHures o Failures help to advance the state of the art 0 Fallout from Hammurabi s code 0 People didn t take chances Building codes 0 Initially they were self imposed 0 Civilization created formalization and legalization 0 Society has a say 0 First US building code 1648 0 You can not build chimney out of wood Modern Codes 0 Uniform Building Code UBC 0 Goals I Publication maintenance promotion I Investigation 8k research safety I Uniformity in regulation I Education UPC 8 NEC International Code Council ICC 0 ISO 9000 Lack of code innovation Natural Disasters 0 Hurricanes 8L typhoons o Galveston Texas category 5 wiped Galveston off the map 0 Floods o Volcanoes 0 Fires 0 Tornadoes o Earthquakes o Liquefaction I Soil becomes quicksand when soil shakes with enough moisture o Mudslides o Draughts o Blizzardshailstorms 8252009 44500 PM Fema money given to rebuild 0 New codes 0 Has to be on stilts 0 Walls need to be breakaway Spallanzani Code 1798 o 1St to address integrated structure 0 Stressed Flexibility Real life examples 0 First interstate bank quake proofingquot 0 Mexico city cathedral 0 Boston Tunnel Example of the san Francisco Codes 0 1907 incr wind load from 15 psf to 30 psf o 1925 decr wind load back to 15 and incr the maximum load for steal by 125 Failures caused by humans 0 Faulty building techniques Jerry Building 0 Shoddy Construction Scamping 0 Using inferior material Hurricane Andrew 0 Shoddy workmanship 0 Use of inferior materials 0 Lax inspections 8252009 44500 PM Korea 0 New buildings built all the time 0 Luxury sampoong department store 0 Added 5 1 l floor 0 New roof required along with new air conditioner 0 Cracks were found in the top floor of the building from the vibration I Turned off air conditioner I Closed 5th floor for repairs I 545 in the afternoon a in less than 30 seconds 5 floors collapsed into the basement n world39s worst building disaster ever 0 500 Dead 0 498 total dead 0 Set up inquiry team I Substandard Concrete u Concrete was adequate I Originally an office building U Converted to department store a Cut hole for escalators n Put huge air conditioners on roof that added extra load 4 times the expected load a Rolled the Air conditioner across the roof to move it 0 Cracked the roof all over the whole roof D 5th floor overloaded o 3 ft deep concrete base for people to sit in u Weakened columns accelerated collapse n Too much weight not enough support I Building owner jailed architect and engineer jailed as well Falsework 0 Temporary structures that are essential to the process of erecting a permanent structure 0 Significance 0 At the heart of the HOW things got built 0 Evolution of their design 0 Ageold technology question I Which came first Falsework or desire to build tall structures 0 Scaffolding o Raised platform used to support the workers and materials Can be suspended from the top Purpose to support all construction operations that can not be reached from ground Used in all construction Used by all major civilizations 0 Most expensive 0 Ladder 0 Limited reach 0 O 0 Horizontal and vertical reach 0 O o No place for materials 0 Easy to move around 0 Less resources to use Primitive scaffolding o Egypdan 0 Created ramp with rubble and dug down 0 Medieval 0 Standards vertical poles o Ledgers Horizontal o Putlogs leave out part of building and put scaffolding into wall to support scaffolding o Hurdles Platform Reducing cost 0 Use building 0 Reuse materials 0 Put only where needed Salisbury cathedral in England 0 Hording Protects work and workers from weather Also protects public from accidents Scare39 Coeur in Paris 0 READ BOOK Bamboo in far east 0 Available reusable lightweight Washington Monument in Washington DC 0 Private donations o Scaffolding most expensive Construction Elevators O O Formwo rk 0 0 Outside of building Move materials up Mold used to contain wet material until it hardens Synonymous with Shuttering Is the oldest of the four types Endures incredible pressures Rammed Earth Construction 0 Dirt mixed with water I Compacts dirt in formwork Roman 0 Cut bricks in half to create formwork to contain concrete 0 Aqueducts I Wood form with brick formwork filled with concrete Modern time 0 Cast in place I Components a Wood rebar concrete I Use I Complexity 0 PreCast I Off site construction I Put in place I PreCast u BulbTee Section a Common in bridges o Tilt up walls I Combination of above method a Walls prebuilt and then raised into place Centering 0 Frame used to support the individual units of an arch 0 Most difficult and demanding o Wedge shaped stones I Voussoirs I Keystone is at the top St Louis bridge built in sections Ca nta nary Curve 0 Pick up a rope by the ends and this shape results Video 0 Too high for centering 0 26000 tons of concrete sunk into bedrock 0 segments assembled on the ground 0 steel tendons to create stability Decentering Shonng o Bracing used to prop something up or prevent cave ins 0 Structural Shoring 0 Used to support weight of building 0 Trench 8 excavation shoring O O O O QUIZ Most accidents Taper Sides of trench Use shore Bench the trench 0 Fuck this class 0 Arch 8252009 44500 PM