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Psychology week 7

by: Shanna Beyer

Psychology week 7 PSYC 1030

Shanna Beyer
University of Memphis
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Brain and the nervous system, child development
General Psychology
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1030 at University of Memphis taught by Freels in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 03/18/16
Psychology Week 7 Language Development - Biological Disposition: hereditary readiness to learn certain skills - Genetic vs. Social - Genetic: identification, nonexistence, possession, negation, question - Social: imitation and conditioning - universal qualities - Praise: raising and falling - Warning: short and sharp Moral Development - Pre-conventional: moral thinking guided by the consequences from the actions taken - Conventional: reasoning based on the desire to please others or to follow accepted authority, rules and values - Post-conventional: moral behavior is directed by self-chosen ethical principles, tend to reflect justice, dignity, and equality Erikson’s 8 Stages - 1: Trust vs. Mistrust: secure or insecure attachment - 2: Authority vs. Shame and Doubt: Autonomy comes when encouraging the attempt of new skills. Overprotection can induce the opposite - 3: Initiative vs. Guilt: Initiative is encouraged by fostering curiosity. Guilt is encouraged if parents are impatient or don’t as questions - 4: Industry vs. Inferiority: Industry is encouraged by rewarding hard work. Inferiority is caused by treating early efforts is childish or poor - 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion: The individual must build their experience in school and life into a sense of self. Role Confusion is the opposite - 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation: Forming rewarding relationships with others lead to an inability to care fully about others, leads to isolation. - 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation: Generativity is the expression of care for future generations and the world. Stagnation is caring snout one’s self and needs. - 8: Integrity vs. Despair: last stage is how people feel about their lives. Those who lived richly passed with integrity. Those who are filled with regret experience despair How to be a successful adult - These are considered by several researchers to be the qualities needed for well-being through adulthood - self-accepting, positive relations with others, personal freedom, environmental mastery, a life purpose, and continued personal growth Brain and Nervous System: Central Nervous System: brain and spinal chord Peripheral Nervous System: sensory neurons
 - Somatic: handles input from the sensory organs and sends messages to the muscles - Sympathetic: prepares the body for strenuous activity - Parasympathetic: does the opposite of sympathetic, (flight response) - Sympathetic increases heart rate, dilates breathing airways, slows down digestion, releases adrenaline. - Parasympathetic decreases heart rate, narrows airways, up regulates digestion - it’s a continuum Neuron: basic cell of the nervous system Soma: cell body, contains the nucleus Axon: receiver of signals Dendrites: sending a message Nerve Impulse: the signal for the neurons - the inside/outside of the cells are different electrically - different charges, inside sits at -70 - -50 is the charge that fires the impulse - when dendrites receive a message, positive ions rush in - makes the charge more positive that fires the new impulse or action potential - all-or-nothing - after impulse, the ions leave. However, it overshoots the target - Hyperpolarization: causes seizures (epilepsy) Synapse: space between neurons. the signal must cross that if it is to move to the next neuron Neurotransmitter: chemical released that alters activity in other neurons - inhibitory - excitatory -ex. dopamine, seratonin, GABA, Glutamine Steps of Signaling 1: Action potential increase calcium in the cell - activates versicles (storage organelles) 2: Vesicles move to the membrane of the cell - fuse with the membrane 3: After membrane fusion, vesicles release its neurotransmitter into synapse. 4: Neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the next neuron 5: triggers the nerve impulse in the next cell and the cycle begins again Brain: Frontal Lobe: associated with “higher thinking” and mental abilities and sense of self Primary Motor Cortex: rear portion of the frontal lobe, controls muscle movements Mirror Neurons: specialized component of the primary motor cortex Association Areas: combine and process specific type of information -Borca’s area: area in the left frontal lobe for language - damage to this area leads to aphasia Prefrontal Cortex: the very front portion of the brain that generates character and self awareness soma=body Parietal Lobe: sensation register includes touch, temperature and pressure Somatosensory Cortex: brain tissue that organizes all of the information Temporal Lobe: located on each side of the brain that is the primary auditory area - Wernicke’s Area: lose association with words Occipital Lobe: area of the cortex associated with vision - damage to this area can cause agnosia which is the inability to say what things are Lobes: all apart of the main cerebral cortex Subcortex: the structures under the cerebral cortex HindBrain/Brainstem: lowest portion of the brain - brainstem, medulla, pons Medulla: controls and maintains vital life functions. ex pulse Pons: acts like a bridge between the medulla and the rest of the brain


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