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Classical Conditioning: Basic Phemonena and Various Complexities

by: Aimee Castillon

Classical Conditioning: Basic Phemonena and Various Complexities PSYC 304

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC 304 > Classical Conditioning Basic Phemonena and Various Complexities
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy

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About this Document

Chapter 4 lecture slide notes
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 304 at George Mason University taught by Patrick McElroy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Principles of Learning in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/30/15
Organization name m e e C a St I I O n acastil7amuedu PSYC 304 0 Fall 2015 2293 flquot quotitlllziau ifiv gu 1 willm llfsifie l l 39 quot7 3quot cl 9195 9 7 3 r g 39 73f w t 393 cell 1ng ll ill kg l lll l Hg midl El llgl lltgxl ll lgl ml Asymptote of conditioning acquisition perceived rapidly at first but then tapered off over subsequent trials eg studying maximum amount of conditioning that can take place Example US E coli in Seafood Surprise UR Gastrointestinal distress CS seafoodquotSeafood Surprise CR avoidance Classical Conditioning Basic Phenomena Acquisition developing and strengthening a conditioned response through repeated pairings of the NS and the US factors affecting the speed of conditioning and the max asymptote of conditioning intensity of US more intense US is result in fasterstronger conditioning eg the richer the food the fasterstronger the conditioning will occur intensity of the NS the more intense N8 is the fasterstronger conditioning eg brighter light a loudertone extinction spontaneous recovery and disinhibition extinction weakening or eliminating a CR by presenting CS without the US extinction is the process and procedure a CR that is no longer elicited by a CS has been extinguished CRs of avoidance are typically difficult to extinguish why Strong adaptiveness and emotional attachment a CS that has been extinguished does not return to being an NS pairing it with the US again leads to more rapid learning conditioning spontaneous recovery the reappearance of a CR after extinction occurs after a rest period between when the CR is extinguished and the next presentation of the CS after each instance of spontaneous recovery the CR becomes weaker and is extinguished more rapidly spontaneous recovery is especially important when trying to extinguish a fearavoidance response multiple sessions spaced in time are usually necessary spontaneous recovery provides evidence that CRs are not unlearned during extinction instead something new is learned the inhibition of the CR extinction involves a buildup of inhibition after repeated representations of the CS alone without the US disinhibition recovery of a CR during extinction when a novel stimulus is introduced eg your test anxiety is diminishing as you take an exam only to increase again when sounds intrude from the classroom next door example of stimulus generalization stove tops dogs tone test Step 1 2000 Hz tone NS Food US gt salivation 1900Hz tone NS No food Step 2 2000Hz tone CS gt salivation CR excitatory conditioning 1900Hz tone CS gt no salivation inhibitory conditioning habituation a decrease in the strength of an elicited behavior occurs after repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus usually occurs with lowintensity eliciting stimuli inhibitory conditioning he N8 is associated with the absence or removal of the US over multiple trials the CS begins to inhibit the occurrence of a particular response dishabituation reappearance of a habituated response after a novel stimulus is introduced eg you ve habituated of traffic outside your apartment but begin to notice it again when you have guests over disinhibition recovery of a response during an extinction procedure after a novel stimulus is introduced eg you salivate every time you see a Sonic ad on TV because you then immediate run next door and get a hot dog then you start dating a vegan and no longer get your Sonic fix so you stop salivating at the ads one night your best friend is with you when the Sonic ad comes on instead of your significant other and the saliva begins to flow stimulus generalization and discrimination learning is most adaptive if it is generalizable that is if we don t just learn that our stove might be hot but that stoves might be hot stimulus generalization tendency for stimuli similar to the C8 to elicit the CR stimuli more similar to the CS will elicit more responding than those less similar semantic generalization generalization of a CR often an emotional response to verbal stimuli based on meaning rather than m eg snake serpent viper python etc but NOT rake or lake stimulus discrimination a CR is more likely to occur in the presence of one stimulus than another the training CS is most likely to elicit the CR discrimination training involves presenting more than one CS with the target CS paired with the US and a similar CS not paired with the US ie shades of color generalization and discrimination are important in human behavior phobias classical conditioning of a fear response involve overgeneralization of the fear to inappropriate or irrelevant stimuli discrimination training and experimental neurosis Shenger Krestovnikova used a discrimination training procedure with dogs circle food gt salivation ellipse no food began to make ellipse more circular increasing the difficulty of the discrimination when ellipse was almost circular the dogs were barely able to make the discrimination salivating just slightly more in response to the circle and the dogs eventually became agitated Pavlov called this experimental neurosis theorized that the cause was unpredictable events symptoms displayed were different in individual dogs What would Pavlov s experiment look like was a metronome as the C81 and a light as the C82 Step 1 Metronome food gt salivation Metronome gt salivation Step 2 Light metronome gt salivation light gt salivation note that the light has never been directly paired with the food yet it elicits a CR you can add a N83 by pairing it with the light and some showed no symptoms at all Pavlov believed differences were based on temperament shy withdrawn dogs learned associations more readily than active outgoing dogs the opposite of his hypothesis Eysenck developed a theory of personality based on Pavlov s work with a major distinction being introversionextroversion learning nurtureenvironment interacting with inborn predispositions naturegenetics may be an important factor in the development of personality introverts individuals who are highly reactive to external stimulation condition easily and develop anxietytype symptoms in reaction to stress extroverts individuals who are less reactive to external stimulation condition less easily and develop physicaltype symptoms in reaction to stress theory proposes that psychopaths are individuals in engage in antisocial behavior are extreme extroverts who condition very poorly and have extreme physicaltype symptoms in reaction to stress Two extensions of classical conditioninq in the real world stimuli are rarely isolated higherorder conditioning stimulus that is associated with a CS can also become a CS firstorder conditioning Wasp N8 Sting U8 gt Fear Wasp C81 gt Fearavoidance CR secondorder conditioning trash can N82 Wasp C81 gt Fear CR trash can C82 gt fearavoidance CR The C82 generally elicits a weaker CR than the C81 thirdorder conditioning is also possible difficult and the elicited response CR is likely to be weak realworld example of higherorder conditioning celebrity endorsements sensory preconditioning stimulus that was previously associated with a C8 before it was associated with a U8 can become a C8 itself preconditioning phase toolshed N82 Wasp N81 conditioning of wasps wasp N81 sting U8 gt fear UR wasp C81 gt fearavoidance CR test toolshed C82 gt fear CR Three examples of specificity in classical conditioning overshadowing most salient part of a compound stimulus is more readily associated with a U8 and interferes with less salient parts makes adaptive sense demonstrated that contiguity bt N8 and U8 isn t enough for conditioning to take place step 1 conditioning of compound stimulus bright light faint metronome food gt salivation step 2 presentation of each part of the compound bright light CS gt salivation faint metronome NS gt no salivation blocking presence of an established CS interferes with conditioning of a new CS once a CS is a perfect predictor of a US associating the US with another NS adds no value step 1 light NS food US gt salivation UR light CS gt salivation CR step 2 light metronome Compound CS food US gt salivation UR step 3 light CS gt salivation CR metronome NS gt no salivation latent inhibition familiar stimulus is more difficult to condition than an unfamiliar stimulus step 1 metronome NS 40 presentations step 2 metronome NS food US gt salivation UR step 3 test trial metronome NS gt no salivation Additional phenomena temporal conditioning possible for a CS to be something intangible like the passage of time ie pets begin getting antsy as their regular dinner time approaches occassion setting elements of the context can predict the occassion when the relationship exists between the CS and the US step 1 background light on metronome food gt salivation Background light off metronome no food step 2 background light on metronome gt salivation external inhibition presentation of a novel stimulus at the same time as the CS results in a decrease in the CR step 1 metronome food gt salivation metronome gt salivation step 2 novel background light metronome gt weak salivation US revaluation step 1 metronome small amount of food gt weak salivation metronome CS gt weak salivation CR step 2 large amount of food US gt strong salivation UR metronome CS gt strong salivation CR pseudoconditioning elicited response that looks like a CR is actually the result of sensitization ie light flash shock gt leg flexion light flash gt leg flexion tone gt leg flexion sensitization can increase the strength of an elicited response it can sometimes also result in the response being elicited by other stimuli pseudoconditioning can be a problem whenever the US is emotionally arousing eg PTSD


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