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Date Created: 10/07/14
Lecture 11 Modern China and Japan 10714 1021 AM Asian Societies at a crossroads in the Early Modern Period China Always the major power in Asia By virtue of its size Long united by a series of dynasties Exerted cultural and economic influence over its neighbors Japan 25x smaller than china Stood on the periphery of Asia Removed from the continent Long fragmented by petty warlords Yet by 17 Century China had begun to stagnate Japan began to rise as a world power What are the reasons for this change of fortunes Prosperous China in the Early Modern Period Economic and population growth Global trading system Influence of the Europeans marginal and under control By 1800 problems were becoming evident Reconciling their traditions with the accelerated changes Enormous land empire put a strain on its finances Transformations in Japan From a decentralized militarized society into a more centralized peaceful and commercial society Japan started the EM period torn by civil war but ended with peace and stability Great agricultural production Population growth By 1800 Foundation for future developments Peculiar relationship with the West China Traditional Political Ideas and Structures The Middle Kingdomquot and its influence t ang period 618907 CE Role of Confucianism ethical code that emphasized reverence for precedent ancestors and paternal authority Harmonious Society Hierarchy should govern all social relations Fatherson Rulersubject Husband wife Social superiorsubordinate Scholar Bureaucrats Day to day governance Class of highly educated highly literate men scholar qentry Passed rigorous civil service examinations Were thoroughly educated in the Confucian classics Several levels before receiving a degree Even then only the best went on to work at the highest levels of gov Ming Dynasty 13681644 1368 drove out the Mongols Eradicate Mongol influence Rebuild the Great Wall Helped to repulse a Jap invasion of Korea Threat from the Manchus Peasant uprisings Qing Dynasty 16441911 Manchus poured in to China from Manchuria Building on China39s old dynastic framework to create a new government Chinese Empire greatly expanded 0 Emperor Kangzi 16611722 Tibet becomes Chinese protectorate Emperor Quianlong 17351796 Quing Agricultural and Demographic Growth Economic Dynamisms encouraging exports and economic growth Sustained economic expansion Increased productivity by bringing every possible parcel of land under cultivation Corn sweet potatoes and peanuts allowed peasants to take advantage of soil that could not be cultivated for rice or wheat More popuation increasing poverty growing pool of cheap labor Domestic production increases silk porcelain lacquerware balance of trade with silver urban growth roads cities canals Tight government control Restricted trading to certain ports China Challenges of the West The Canton Trading System Jesuits in China Foreshadowing Problems ahead for Asia Trouble with landbased empires Demands on bureaucracy and military B Gov and Trade Refused to actively participate in overseas trade C Tradition and Change Western Ideas transformed Chinese society difficuty keeping pace with change and pressure from the West Plantation Economics 10714 1021 AM A Sugar Warm environment Lots of labor Europe had neither Black death Urban bourgeois Now Europeans find moist wet climates for growing sugar Still a Labor Shortage Europeans would have liked to see Caribbean and Amerindians Kept dying of European diseases Then they tried indentured servants Irish and Catalans o Kept dying of tropical diseases By 1600 Portuguese importation of African Slave Labor Resistant to Old World Diseases Resistant to tropical diseases The Plantation System Portuguese sugar production Tropical lowlands of Brazilian coast Dutch Englihs and French came to rial Portuguese production of the crop Britiish Barbados and Jamaica especially important Dutch Curacao French Haiti and Martinique also Louisiana Sugar Profits Net profits of 20 o up to 1700 Net profits of 10 up until 1800 European ports like Amsterdam Liverpool and Bordeaux prospered with sugar imports o 80 of overseas profits were derived from the sugar trage These profits would make the Industrial Revolution possible The Slave Trade Estimates 1898 George Macdonald 225 million o 1998 Modern Historians 1114 million 10 20 o die in transit 0 1011 million in the Americas Volume changed over time Who did the trading Portuguese Less than 5 of slaves made it to US 50 Brazil 4000 How was it carried out Trade beads Cowry shells Trade manila Madras cotton squares Why did Africans sell slaves 1 Patrick Manning distinguishes between slave producing societies and slave supplying societies 2 The Slavegun cycle 3 David Eltis The Rise ofAfrican Slavery in the America Africans had a wide range of responses to the European demand for slaves Africans firmly left the stamp upon the development of the slave trade 4 Evidence from Senegambia and the Slave Coast Togo and Benin They didn39t want to export people of their own ethnicity They chose to retain slaves for domestic use instead Islam rose partly as a response to the slave trade Islamic leaders demanded an end to the trade though not to slavery Impact on Africa the trade in slaves is the business of kings rich men and prime merchants Instability caused by competition and warfare Social shift towards warrior or soldier Family systems began to break up Monetization of a tribal society Wars took on a religious overtone of believers against nonbelievers Shift in the locus of power within Africa Did the Atlantic Slave Trade keep Africa from developing 0 Walter Rodney How Europe Underdeveoped Africa ABINA DISCUSSIONS European Empires 10714 1021 AM built on trade in the Early Modern Period radical shift in world power Europe rise first of the Portuguese and Spanish Empires then the Dutch then the British and the French World System many African states were drawn in to dependence Islamic Empires and China conceded lucrative trade Power shifts within Europe Global trade in to the hands of European monopolies Sponsoring governments came into conflict with one another By 1800 Spain and Portugal in decline Dutch too declined lacking the resources Britain and France were on the rise 0 British Constitutionalism 0 French Subordination permitted focus on colonial expansion reinvestment into colonial enterprises emergence of radical new ideas Mercantilism Common 16quot and to the 18quot century economic theory and practice Economic counterpart to Absolutism Building a network of overseas colonies Forbidding colonies to trade with other nations Monopolizing markets with staple ports Banning the export of gold and silver even for payments Forbidding trade to be carried in foreign ships Export subsidies Promoting manufacturing with research or direct subsidies Limiting wages Maximizing the use of domestic resource Restricting domestic consumption with non tariff barriers to trade The Enlightenment 18th and 19 Centuries American and French Revolutions mobilized a series of Enlightenment ideals Made their case for the overthrow of the traditional order 0 Popular sovereignty 0 Political and legal equality 0 Individual freedom 0 Democracy liberalism nationalism and socialism Enlightenment concepts of equality and representation were applied selectively A Revolt of the bourgeoisie From the French bourg for market town Socio economic class of non nobe property owners merchants and professionals Demanded a voice in their own governance Challenged the arbitrary rule of hereditary monarchs Middle class revolutionaries Group of wealthy white men who adopted Enlightenment ideals Euro Americans men wanted representative systems that favored their interests Enlightened and Revolutionary Ideas New ways of thinking about the world laws Physical scientists Galileo Kepler Newton Social Scientists laws governing human relation Enlightenment philosophers sought To apply reasoned thinking to social and political problems Fair and equitable society through new governmental systems Revolutionaries attacked monarchical and aristocratic regimes using enlightened political ideals Five General Areas of thought 1 Popular Sovereignty a Reaction against divine right of monarchs i Sought to make kinds responsible to the people they governed Social Contract ii John Locke Second Treatise of Civil Government 1690 iii Retain personal rights of life liberty and property iv Monarchs received their sovereignty from the governed could be overthrown v Put limits on their power and prevent them from becoming absolutists 2 Political and Legal Equality a The concept of the individual a critical component of the Enlightenment i In traditional European society as in Confucian China People had understood themselves as part of a complicated hierarchy Governed by different laws responsibilities and p v eges 0 ii Enlightenment thinkers philosophes all members of the community to be equal before the lay 0 iii JeanJacques Rousseau The Social Contract all individuals would 2 participate equally in the creation of laws 2 general will of the people would determine the laws of society 3 Individual Freedom a Individual legal and political equality required personal freedoms b Free to think and speak for themselves Phiosophes o Rejected both secular and religious authorities 0 Argued against censorship by state officials C Voltaire 16941778 0 Called for religious toleration and the freedom of the press 4 AntiClericalism a A historical movement and influence in all aspects of public and political life 0 Actual or alleged power and influence in all aspects of public and political life 0 Rejection of hierarchies and absolutism not just Catholicism but Christianity 0 Reduced prestige of the church B Causes rooted in religious wars of Europe 0 Thirty Years War 161848 Cuius region eius religio to whom is the king to him shall decide the religion 0 The battle for absolute righteousness had to end 5 Growth of Science a Scientific Ideology i Ability of human beings or rather men to control and appropriate the earth ii Earth as a fertile treasure box capable of being manipulated 0 B In England 0 Newton god was a designer perhaps a mechanic contractually bound once he had built his machine 0 Locke argued in favor of the ability of man to learn and progress understanding Reasonableness of Christianity 1695 Revolutions Political 10714 1021 AM Revolutionary Background The 7 Year War Because of the Enlightenment England and France became the dominant Western European states Surpassing Portugal Spain the Netherlands and even the Holy Roman Empire Religious Aspect Protestant Britain and Catholic France opponents in religious struggle Mercantilism Competition for each other s markets in the Americas In 1756 British and French colonists went to war with each other north America theater of war called the French and Indian War Seven Years War 175663 Fought on land in Europe North America the Carribean and even in Asia Fought at sea on the Atlantic and Indian Ocean Decisive but costly victory for the British France abandoned its claims in India and ultimately in North America Britain asserting limited dominance over the seas Seven Years War was the context of the American and French Revolutions Must also be seen in terms of preceding social and political revolutions the Enlightenment The American Revolution 17751781 0 Mobilization of the Enlightenment To eliminate the arbitrary power of a monarch To create a representative republic Bourgeoisie constructed the new republic to serve their interests and exclude others The Spark Tightening Fiscal Control and Colonial Greivances The high cost of the 7 years war in North America o British attempted to recoup their costs New taxes applied only to the colonies o Moasses Act 1733 0 Sugar Tax 1764 0 Stamp Tax 1765 Tighten up trade restrictions 0 Navigation Acts no taxation without representation Underpinning factors behind rebellion Q What were the real causes of the American Revolution Money Enlightenment ideas National Identity 0 Patrick Henry39s Liberty or Death speech 0 Otis s protest against Writs ofAssistance 176039s 0 John Adams Hearts and Minds with the Stamp Act of 1765 Imperial mismanagement o No avenues for redress of grievances o Unending stream of insensitivity and inflexibility The Declaration and War of Independence 1774 Colonists organize the Continental Congress 1775 British troops and Colonial militia skirmish at Lexington 1776 Declaration of Independence echoes John Locke39s contractual theory of government Washington crosses Delaware Was the American Revolution a revolution Constitutional Convention in 1787 Attempt to put Locke and Rousseau s social contract into practice Created the most democratic government of the era 0 Only a minority of the adult population gained full political rights Rights only to men of property No property transfer to the poor No changes in the ruling class within the colony 0 White landowners Monarchy to republic Chronology of the French Revolution 0 French revolutionaries also drew inspiration from the Enlightenment 0 But were not able to create an enduring form of representative democracy Four Phases 1 Pre 1789 i Led by nobility struggling to retake political power after the absolutist reign of Louis XIV 0 Phase 1 The nobility and prerevolution Absolutist monarch Louis XIV dies in 1715 Relationship between nobles and king Louis XVI strained 17871789 legal debate between monarchy and aristocracy over 2 financing of the state 2 political authority which each claimed to enjoy exercise 2 1789 o Paralleled American Effort 0 Creating a system of representation for the wealthy bourgeoisie 0 Phase 2 Fiscal Woes and the Estates General Estates General assembly representing the French estates of the realm 1 Estate clergy 2quotd Estate nobles 3 Estate people Called by Louis XVI in 1789 to solve fiscal problems brought about by the seven year snad American revolutionary war Louis asked nobility for help Form of representation is return French debt to English bankers o National Assembly and Constitutional Monarchy June 1789 Third Estate seceded from the Estates General declare themselves National Assembly national assembly imagined itself akin to the British parliament claimed the right to raise taxes and draft a constitution July 14 1789 crowd storms the Bastille Royal arsenal and jail Popular uprisings for the assembly forced Louis to accept claims of sovereignty 0 French Enlightenment ideals Enshrined in Law August 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Documented that established the principles of this new government Proclaimed the equality of all men and the rule of popular sovereignty 2 Constitutional monarchy 3 1792 o a more radical phase led by further left forces Directory 4 1799 o coup d tat by Napoleon
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