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Week 7 Notes

by: Chasia Notetaker

Week 7 Notes BIOL 12000

Chasia Notetaker
GPA 3.56

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About this Document

These notes cover what we went over during week 7.
Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E
Nancy L Jacobson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chasia Notetaker on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 12000 at Ithaca College taught by Nancy L Jacobson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E in Biology at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 03/18/16
Week of March 7, 2016    Adaptive Radiation  ­gain of new innovation that allows exploitation of new environment  ­ex. Icefish with antifreeze­once southern ocean became cold  ­now 122 species    Animal body plans and development  ­closest relative of animals are choanoflagellates (colonial protists)  ­all animals are multicellular  ­over 1 million species described  ­33 phyla   ­15 live only in the water (most in the ocean)  ­1 lives only on land (but lived in the water in the cambrian period)  ­rest can be found on both land and water    Body plans differ in   ­body symmetry  ­radial:­ more than one longitudinal cut can divide into equal halves  ­can move any direction  ­all live in water  ­bilateral:­only one longitudinal cut divides into equal (mirror) pieces  ­usually have a head with sense organs  ­move in one direction  ­gut  ­simple gut = gastrovascular cavity  ­one opening serves as both mouth and anus  ­complete digestive tract  ­mouth and anus  ­allows specialized organs in between  ­coelum  ­body cavity between the gut and the body wall  ­helps prevent organs from injury  ­development  ­cleavage:cell division (mitosis)  ­blastula: ball of cells hollowed out  ­gastrula: ­wall invaginates to form internal sac  ­internal sac (archenteron) becomes gut    Sponges are weird  ­most adults are asymmetrical but adolescents are symmetrical   ­digest food intracellularly  ­with amoebocytes    Embryonic tissues form in gastrula   ­endoderm (in all but sponges)  ­inner layer  ­forms inner lining of gut (and lungs in vertebrates)   ­mesoderm (in most animals)   ­forms muscle, peritoneum (lines coelum)  ­can form in two ways  ­ectoderm (in all but sponges)  ­outerlayer   ­forms skin (and feathers, etc.), nervous system    Formation of mesoderm ­ in some  ­one cell of the 64­cell stage is destined to form mesoderm  ­this cell divides to form cell masses between endoderm and ectoderm in the gastrula   ­theses masses may then hallow out to form a cavity that expands and becomes the  coelum     Formation of mesoderm­ in others  ­mesoderm forms from pouches off of the embryonic internal sac (archenteron) in the gastrula   ­these pouches pinch off and expand to form a coelum    Larval stage(s)  ­most aquatic invertebrates   ­free living (feeding) larva  ­change form (metamorphosis) to adult    Evolution of Musculoskeletal Systems  ­skeleton provides support, allows movement, and/or provides protection    1. Hydrostatic skeleton  a. Rigidity comes from pressure of fluid in a confined space, usually the GVC or  coelum  i. Flexible but limits size and types of locomotion  2. Exoskeleton  a. Rigid, acellular covering­such as a cuticle or shell  b. Ranges in hardness and how completely it covers the body  c. Arthropod exoskeletons are highly adaptable  i. New structures, such as wings, have formed  ii. Modification of appendages  1. Ex. mouthparts, legs, and even genitalia  2. This is why there are so many species   iii. Genitalia can become modified, leading to reproductive isolation and new  species  3. Endoskeleton  a. ­rigid internal elements  Contractile cells and tissues  a. ­can actively shorten (pull) but not lengthen (push)   b. ­usually in pairs to cause opposite movements (antagonists)                


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