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LAST 170 Week 9 Notes

by: Stef Antonopoulos

LAST 170 Week 9 Notes LAST 170

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Stef Antonopoulos
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These notes cover the lecture from 3/14 and 3/16
Introduction to Latin America
McKenna, E
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stef Antonopoulos on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LAST 170 at a university taught by McKenna, E in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.


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Date Created: 03/18/16
Outline  ● Manifest Destiny  ● Good Neighbor  ● Policy Cold War  ● Post­Cold War  ● School of the Americas/WHINSEC  Conceptual Tools  ● How significantly has U.S. policy changed over the past century?  ● How did the Cold War affect U.S. relationships with Latin American countries?  ● Consider the symbolic value of the School of the Americas  Announcements  ● Dictatorship Film Viewing: Tuesday 3/29 7:00­9:00PM: Missing (Chile) Gregory Hall 100   ● Dictatorship Film Essay due Friday, April 8 on Moodle (by 8 AM) and in discussion  section  ● Skidmore and Smith—Chapt. 12  ● Discussion Forum  Manifest Destiny­ 19th & Early 20th C. Policy  ● Expansion  ○ Exceptionalism  ■ Duty to expand  ■ Promote values of liberty, progress, individualism  ● Established early on  ○ Need to expand to push values  ○ Exclude Rivals  ■ Economic Gains    ● Mexican American War, 1846­1848  ○ US needed to expand territory  ■ Result: Mexico lost significant portion of the land  ■ For the good of our country's values  ● More people have access to our values  ● Intervention in Cuba, 1898­1933  ○ Talked about how both political and economic and cultural component  ■ Social impact  ● Panama Canal, 1903(­1999)  ○ Prior to the building of the canal, it was part of colombia (not independent)  ○ France tried to make a canal (unsuccessful)  ■ US took chance  ○ US supported Panama to support its own decisions at the time  ○ US had control of the Canal for 20th century  ■ Economic benefits  ● Quickest route from Europe to Asia  ○ Economic motivation to promoted values    ● Political Cartoon: After the US, they are standing upright  ○ US is benefitting the other countries who had once been under foreign control  Good Neighbor Policy, 1933  “The neighbor who resolutely respects himself and because he does so, respects the rights of  others…” ­FDR  ● Denounce US Interventionism, (as political principle)  ● Respect sovereignty  ○ Platt Amendment was over in 1933  ● Oppose armed intervention  ● Positive Representations in media  ○ Case Study of Cuba on Period of time  ■ I Love Lucy  ■ The Three Caballeros ­ Walt Disney  ● Bringing in what Latin America is doing  ○ We can be friends  ■ Celebrate culture   Cold War, 1945  ● East vs. West Communist vs. Capitalist  ● USSR vs. USA   ● origin of notions of 1st, 2nd, 3rd World  Latin America in the Cold War  ● Considered part of 3rd world (i.e. it was up for grabs or it was seeking alternatives)  ● US “backyard  ○ Organization of American States (OAS) 1948  ■ Created an allegiance of these countries  ● Tendencies towards both sides  ○ Inequalities generated support for Marxist ideologies  ○ ISI era for example, prior to Cold War  US Cold War Policies (Post­1959)  ● Contrainment:  ○ Ideology more important than economic gains and political principles  ■ Manifest destiny: for world’s good but also ^^  ■ Political principle to stop intervening, and Democracy  ○ Ideology of not want communism to spread #1   ● Difference in public and private platforms  ○ Public: Pretty picture things, Democracy, US respecting sovereignty  ■ Private Platform: Declassified documents, not portrayed to the world  ● Economic support for development  ○ Capitalist development  ● Military intervention (usually indirect)  ○ Military Support  ■ Operations providing intelligence  ■ Training to Latin American  (Some) US Cold War Interventions  ● Guatemala, 1954  ○ Involved in overthrowing the president because he was going to issue land  reform which was not beneficial to US companies (economic)  ● Cuba, 1961  ○ Bay of Pigs, support to those who left Cuba, Goal to contain communism  ● Dominican Republic, 1969  ○ Stop democratic candidate  ● Bolivia, 1967  ○ Left wing  ○ Green Berets  ● Chile, 1973  ○ Example of Military Dictatorship  ● El Salvador, 1980s  ● Nicaragua, 1980s  ● Grenada, 1983  ● Panama, 1989  Post­Cold War Incidents  ● Haiti 1994  ○ It stems from coo in 1991 that overthrow leader  ○ After the Cold War, what is emerging now that we don’t have these two duel  powers fighting?  ○ 91­94: US and UN involved to negotiate those in power  ■ Restore democratic leader into power  ● Different governments and countries getting involved  ○ Haiti embargo, sanctions→ Armed invasion supported by UN  ■ Agenda: Bring back Democracy  ○ Jimmy Carter went to try to negotiate  ■ Successful because although the US and UN were willing to intervene  ● Shows that diplomatic means and negotiations can be another  method  ● Not relying on military  ○ Democratic Goal  ● Honduras 2009  ○ Coup that ousted Democratic leader  ■ Raised questions of how dealt with  ○ US stance was to support new election  ■ Sat negatively with those who want to restore democracy    Post­Cold War Policies  ● Transformation of ideological policies  ○ Communism stance doesn’t need to be main policy after Cold War  ● US still relies on force and/or coercion  ● Archaic policy on Cuba until last December  ● Cooperative Ventures  ● Global Elites and their business interests supersede issues between different states    School of the Americas/WHINSEC  ● Gives sense of the issue  ● US has trained Latina American military  ○ Massacre of many in Latin America  ● US closed school  ○ Opened under different name   ● School of Americas Watch  ○ US citizens are saying that it should be shut down  ○ Receiving end cannot tell their story  ■ Watch Tells their story  ○ Protested and got arrested            Military Dictatorships  Outline  ● Chile  ● Argentina  ● Brazil  Conceptual Tools  ● Consider the conditions under which the military governments emerged  ● See common threads, but acknowledge the distinct national historical trajectories  Announcements  ● Skidmore and Smith  ● Final Exam: Tuesday, May 10, 8­11 AM    What does Jerry Davila write about disappearances?  ● They were three crimes at once  ○ Murder  ○ Disappearance of victim and act  Chile 1973­1990  Salvador Allende, 1970­1973  ○ Frey could not be reelected (even though popular)  ● Popular Unity Coalition  ○ Political Party  ● Marxist Socialist (left wing)  ● Nationalization of banks, copper industry  ○ Important  ● Free health care / education  ○ Follows ISI tendencies  ○ State provided support for the people/masses  ● Land redistribution  ○ Agrarian reform  1 LAST 170 3/16 EXAM 2  ■ Like Case study of Mexico  ■ Unequal of access to land  Lead­up to the coup  ● Via pacifica  ○ Socialist changes in the country  ○ Comparable to Cuba  ■ Fidel Castro had to take power through force/revolution  ○ They voted on it  ● Discontent grows  ○ Policies did not appeal to everyone  ○ Through process of nationalizing industry→ Inflation  ■ Items not as readily available  ● Black market emerges  ○ Accessible with only certain people who have the money  ■ Strike  ● Truck driver struck that prevents goods from traversing the country  ○ Hurt Allende’s presidency  ■ Chaos  ● Factions against and for him  ● Failed coup attempt in June 1973­”Tanquetazo”  ○ People discontent enough to try to overthrow him as president  September 11, 1973  ● Successful coup  ○ Bombing the national palace  ■ Allende was in the palace at the time  ● True or False: Some branches of the military remain loyal to Allende on 9/11/73  ○ False  ● “...Foreign capital, imperialism, together with the reaction, created the climate in which  the Armed forces broke their tradition…”  ○ Other powers in place  Delectorial Speech Video  ● Military is supposed to support the president  ● Never had history of dictatorial type of regime  ● Not sure if suicide or if military killed him  ○ Don’t always know exactly what happened  Milton Friedman was the Father of Neoliberalism    2 LAST 170 3/16 EXAM 2  Augusto Pinochet  ● One of the junta leaders  ○ Chilean Military  ● Became sole leader in 1974  ● Adopted harsh neoliberal principles  ○ Students that studied under Milton Friedman (Chicago Boys)  ○ Contrasted strongly against Allende’s  ■ Industries, lower class people hurt  ● Responsible for 3000+ disappearances  ○ Against Pinochet → repression of freedoms  ● 1988 Plebiscite led to free elections in 1990  ○ Changed around the world of ideas of military rules and governments  ○ Option for the people to vote for a free election in 1990  ■ Voted to have the free election  ● Remained in charge of Army until 1998  ○ Legacy of person in control and not criminalized  Role of the US in Chile 1973  ● Controversy  US Looming Presence during the Cold War  ● “I don’t see why we need to stand by and watch a country go communist due to  the irresponsibility of the people. The issues are much too important for the  Chileans voters to be left to decide for themselves.”  ○ Henry Kissinger  ● US was afraid of communist ideals  ○ A Second Cuba  ○ CIA making plans for how Allende doesn’t get elected  ■ Would resign  ● Frey could run again   ○ Corrupt approach to get around the system  ● US cannot operate the plan, has to come from Chile  ● Biggest Danger to the US = US involvement exposed  ○ US has a public platform of promoting democracy  ■ Manipulating elections doesn't do that  ● Based on fear of communism      3 LAST 170 3/16 EXAM 2  Role of US  Political  ● Dislike of Allende / Fear of 2nd Cuba  ● Covert support  ● Influence public opinion  ● Supported chaos / unrest  Economic  ● Ideal site for testing Milton Friedman’s Neoliberalism  ● Chicago boys    Argentina 1976­1983  Background  ● History of military regimes (1930­32, 1943­46, 1955­58, 1962­63, 1966­1973)  ● Why?  ○ Typical political pendulum swings  ○ Increased militarization of society  ● Resulted in:  ○ Increased tolerance for repression  ○ Loss of credibility in democracy   ■ Democracy can’t always solve things  ○ Suppression of communists  ■ Pinoche = Repression  ■ Allende = communist interest  Furthermore…  ● Growing link with international military:  ○ French school on counter revolutionary warfare  ○ 1964 treaty of military assistance with the US  Last military dictatorship  ● 1976­1983 coup and dictatorship ­ most repressive  ○ People were discontent→ thought needed to be controlling to implement  ● Jorge Rafael Videla, military leader (‘76­’81)  4 LAST 170 3/16 EXAM 2  ○ People hold him responsible for the violence  ○ People still celebrate him and think that he’s a hero  ■ Difference in feelings  ● Legitimated violence resolving conflicts  ● Routine disappearances of those holding a “subversive condition”  ● Torture regimen implemented  ● Babies born in captivity given for adoption  ○ Taken to relative  Aftermath  ● Madres de Plaza de Mayo, 1977  ○ During Military regime  ○ Mothers/grandmothers of people who have disappeared  ■ Started protesting during the time during repression and freedom  ● Used position as mothers and grandmothers to call attention to  this issue  ○ Older women that took to the streets got the message out  without repression  ● Number of victims: 10,000 (official register) / 30,000 (human rights groups) / 7,000  (military authorities)  ● Videla in jail for life  ○ In prison for his acts for rest of his life  ○ Pinoche was not held accounted for acts  Brazil 1964­1985  Background  ● Joao Goulart’s Government  ○ January ­ August, 1962: President Janio Quadros ­ in office for 7 months  ● 1961­1964 ­ Vice­president Joao Goulart becomes president  ○ Both had left side policies  ○ “Basic reforms” (e.g. agrarian reform; limit to profit remittances)  ■ Agrarian Reform: Take land from the people to redistribute  ■ Profit remittance: A way for the government to be more involved in the  economy with investments  Social / Political Division  ● Manifestations in favor of the basic reforms   5 LAST 170 3/16 EXAM 2  ● Manifestations against basic reforms “Brazil will not be a new Cuba”  ○ COncerned of the direction their country is going in  Brazilian Civil­Military Dictatorship  ● 1964­ Military Coup  ○ Purpose:  ■ Prevent the enactment of basic reforms  ■ Stop communist threats in Brazil  ● From 1964­1985  ● 21 years and 5 generals”  ○ Castello Branco  ○ Costa e Silva  ○ Medici  ○ Geisel  ○ Figueiredo    Institutional Acts  AI­1, 1964  ● Superseded the Constitution  ● Allowed the regime to suspend the political rights of the ones the generals considered as  a threat for a period of 10 years  ● The military junta could name a candidate for president and Congress would ratify the  candidacy­ Congress knew they “had” to say yes to the candidate  AI­5, 1968  ● Allowed civilians to be detained without charges  ● Shut Congress  ● Harsher National Security Law  ● Media Censorship  ● Outlawed political meetings, strikes and demonstrations  ● Those who criticized the regime were subject to imprisonment   Outcomes  ● Routine disappearances/torture  6 LAST 170 3/16 EXAM 2  ●  approx. 500 killed/disappeared  ● Emergence of clandestine, leftist groups            7 LAST 170 3/16 EXAM 2 


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