ELEM PSYC 1101 Module 3 Notes
ELEM PSYC 1101 Module 3 Notes PSYC 1101
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Clark on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Welsh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Elem Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
For Module 3, things you do NOT need to memorize: - Specific neurotransmitters and their effects/functions, (however you SHOULD know what agonists and antagonists are) - The details about how action potentials occur (the stuff about sodium and potassium ions) Cells of the Nervous System Section Afferent nerve fibers allow us to feel the squeeze on our shoulders while efferent nerve fibers allow us to squeeze the next shoulder in line. Sleep : a periodic, natural, reversible, and near total loss of consciousness. It is beneficial for recuperation, growth, and mental function. REM: Rapid Eye Movement: a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur At night time, pineal gland releases sleep hormones like melatonin. NREM1: experience hypnagogic sensation (body feels like it’s falling and may jerk) NREM2: sleep spindles NREM3: delta waves REM sleep: vivid dreams. Motor cortex is going crazy, but brainstem is blocking message, so your muscles are relaxed (except for your eyes) Sleep deprivation can cause: depression, weight gain, immune system suppression, slow reaction time Disorders: Insomnia: persistent trouble falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy: uncontrollable sleep attacks Sleep apnea: sleeper momentarily stops breathing Night terrors: during NREM3 sleep, not like nightmares in REM sleep 0 = no risk 1 = some risk 2 = moderate risk 3 = extreme risk Alcohol: avrg 1.667 Potential for causing physical harm or negative health effects to the user: 2 Potential for physical dependence and psychological dependence: 2 Potential for negative effects on society: 1 Marijuana: avrg .667 1 0 1 Oxycodone: avrg2 2 3 1 Ecstasy: avrg1.667 2 1 2 LSD: avrg1.667 2 1 2 Meth: avrg 3 3 3 3 US Drug Classification System Alcohol: Marijuana: 1 Oxycodone: 2 Ecstasy: 1 LSD: 1 Meth: 2 Hypnosis: State of heightened relaxation and suggestibility - not asleep - able to control behavior, will not act against your will Who? - 10% easily, 10% not at all, everyone else in between Need: - good concentration - ability to relax - strong visual imagery “Amazing feats” - often able to perform “amazing” feats under hypnosis. - Problem we’re missing a control group sometimes SLEEP: Average sleep cycle for an 8 hour night’s sleep: Awake Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 3 Stage 2 REM (----- complete cycle: takes about 90 minutes) Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 3 Stage 2 REM (second complete cycle, changes now) Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 2 REM Stage 2 REM Stage 2 REM (longest) Awake More time in stage 2 sleep than any of the others, because regardless of where you are in the night’s sleep, you go through stage 2 the most. We dream during REM sleep and also during nREM. REM sleep dreams are the ones we think of, because they are more memorable (more emotional, strange, etc). When we dream during nREM, dreams are usually boring (about everyday things). Dreams tend to reflect our daily life experiences. We tend to dream about stuff we are currently dealing with, familiar places or people. Ideas: we dream as a means of practicing possible solutions for life situations in case we get to them in real life, we dream to explain why things have happened, we dream Disorders Narcolepsy: can sometimes be brought on by strong emotions. a symptom that is sometimes related to narcolepsy is cataplexy REM Behavior Disorder: acting out your dreams Sleepwalking: not dreaming Sleep paralysis: body is asleep, mind is awake. In REM sleep, muscles are mostly paralyzed, but here, mind can wake up before the sleep paralysis wares off. Person wakes up, feeling paralyzed. It typically only lasts a few minutes before your body snaps out of it, but it can feel to the patient like it lasts a lot longer. Cause: brain becomes aware before deep muscle relaxation of REM stops. Stress, sleep deprivation, genetics, and alcohol all increase likelihood. Hypnogogic Sleep Paralysis: in addition to paralysis, experience hallucinations. Common: experience an old woman hovering down by your feet. Different cultures experience different hallucinations. Vision: Inattentional Blindness: focusing in one one thing so strongly that you miss other things surrounding. This can be dangerous in our everyday life Change blindness: not noticing changes after there is a break in vision (it gets covered up for a minute) Bottom-Up Processing: perceiving word by taking small pieces of perception and adding them together until we figure out what it is we’re perceiving. Building up a perception Top Down Processing: perception is driven by cognition/thinking. Figure out what something is based on context, expectations, biases. Figure out based on everything surrounding it. Blindspot: where your optic nerve leaves your eye, you can’t have cones and rods there because it’s a hole. When the axons leave the eye, there’s nothing to pick up the light, causing a blind spot Cornea: covers eye and keeps it safe Pupil: a hole (black spot in eye), opens hole to let in more light, closes to let in less Lens: focuses light on back of the eye Crash course Homunculus notes: Sensory map of the human body. Represents the weighted significance of our sensory receptors. Hands: very sensitive, lots of touches: large representation. Same with tongue. Sensation: bottom-up process by which our senses, like vision hearing and smell, receive and relay outside stimuli. Perception: the top-down way our brains organize and interpret that information and put it into context. Sound moves in waves that vibrate which vary in shape, causing different “loudness” which we measure in decibels. Sound waves are collected and funneled through outer ear into middle ear which vibrate the ear drum, are amplified by ossicle bones, travel to inner ear in the cochlea, which are taken by auditory nerves to the auditory cortex. To taste, our taste buds contain pores that contain taste receptor cells that report back to the brain. Tongues detect sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami(meat). Sensory interaction refers to when one sense influences another. At one extreme, a person has synesthesia which is the production of a sense impression relating to one sense or part of the body by stimulation of another sense or part of the body. Usually these produce nonsensicle relationships. To smell, molecules travel up nose to receptor cells, to olfactory bulb, to primary smell cortex and limbic system. How we feel about a smell, and our perception of it, is often tangled up in our experiences with that scent. Emotional power is because sense circuitry is connected to limbic system next to emotion registry (amygdala) and memory keeper(hippocampus). To touch, pressure warmth cold and pain all have different sensations. Personal kinesthesis is the way your body senses its own movement and positioning. Detect changes in your position of your body without relying on other senses. Partner to it is the vestibular sense which monitors your head’s position and your balance – affected by the fluid in your ear being at different levels. Gymnema sylvestre suppresses your sweet taste bud, so it MAY help lose weight in a healthy manner because you are less inclined to eat a lot of sweets. However, it also would take away the sweetness in healthy foods, so it could also not help you lose weight. It will ruin the taste of all food, not just junk food. BOOK NOTES Chapter 3: Biopsychology Charles Darwin came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection which means that organisms that have adapted to their environment and have the survival skills necessary will tend to outlive those who have not adapted and do not have survival skills. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes Chromosomes are long strips of genetic material called DNA Sequences of DNA make up genes which make up traits/characteristics of organism One gene may have multiple alleles, which are specific versions of a gene Genotype: genetic makeup of organism; Phenotype: individual’s inherited physical characteristics Having a dominant allele of a gene from one or both parents always results in the phenotype of that dominant allele Having two copies of same allele is homozygous; having combination of alleles for a gene is heterozygous Having a recessive allele of a gene means they are homozygous if the recessive trait shows In gene-environment interactions, range of reaction suggests that our environment interacts with our genes to determine how we will operate within the boundaries set by our own genes. Genetic environmental correlation means that genes and environment influence and interact with one another. The nervous system consists primarily of glial cells and also has neurons. Glial cells allow neuronal communication, insolation, and transportation of nutrients. Neurons process information for the nervous system. Neurons start with dendrites, have a cell body (soma) which houses the nucleus, the axon which carries the signals) and terminal buttons which connect with the next neuron to relay the signal by sending its neurotransmitters through the synaptic vesicles into the synapse (space between neurons). On the receiving neuron, there are receptors. Glial cells form myelin sheaths around the axon to insolate it so the signal doesn’t get out. For neuronal communication, there is an electrical signal charge in the membrane in a state of readiness called resting potential. The charge reaches the threshold of excitation causing action potential which moves the length of the neuron to the terminals. Agonists are chemicals that mimic a neurotransmitter at the receptor site, strengthening its effects. An antagonist blocks normal activity of a neurotransmitter at the receptor. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is everything on body not spinal cord and brain. The PNS is split into: SOMATIC nervous system (conscious, voluntary, sensory and motor) and AUTONOMIC nervous system (involuntary, automatic). The somatic’s motor neurons are efferent (away: CNS to muscles). Its sensory neurons are afferent (toward: PNS to CNS). The AUTONOMIC is split into SYMPATHETIC (stress related activities --- fight or flight) and PARASYMPATHETIC (returning body to routine operations) nervous systems. A balance of the two maintains homeostasis. The central nervous system (CNS) is the spinal cord and the brain. Spinal cord has reflexes, routes messages. It is protected by cerebrospinal fluid. The brain has gyri and sulci. The longitudinal fissure is a sulcus that separates the brain into left and right hemispheres. They are connected by corpus callosum which allows them to communicate. Forebrain: Frontal lobe: reasoning (prefrontal cortex), motor control (motor cortex – planning and coordinating movement), emotion, language (Broca’s area – speech production). Phineas Gage injured frontal: changed personality. Parietal lobe: processing information from body’s senses (somatosensory cortex: processes touch, temperature, pain; organized spatially) Temporal lobe: hearing (auditory cortex), memory, emotion, some language (Wernicke’s area – speech comprehension) Occipital lobe: interpreting incoming visual information (primary visual cortex) Thalamus: sensory relay (all senses except smell) Limbic system: processes emotion and memory, includes hippocampus (learning and memory), amygdala (emotion and experience, tying emotion to memory), and hypothalamus (homeostasis of temperature, appetite, blood pressure) Midbrain: The recticular formation in midbrain (extends into forebrain and hindbrain too) regulates sleep/wake cycle, arousal, alertness, motor activity). Dopamine producers are also in midbrain. Hindbrain: Medulla (automatic nervous system processes like breathing, blood pressure, heart rate). Pons: bridge connect between brain and spinal cord, regulates sleep activity. Medulla + pons + midbrain = brainstem Cerebellum: receives messages from muscles, tendons, joints, and ear structures to control balance, movement, coordination The endocrine system produces hormones. The pituitary gland has messenger hormones which control all other glands, and it carries out instructions from hypothalamus. Also growth hormone, pain relief endorphins, regulates fluid levels. The thyroid gland hormones regulate growth, metabolism, appetite. Adrenal glands on top of kidneys reacts to stress. Pancreas regulates blood sugar levels with insulin and glucagon. Gonads do sexual hormones. Chapter 4: States of Consciousness? Consciousness: awareness of internal and external stimuli which ranges from full awareness to deep sleep. Sleep: relatively low levels of physical activity and reduced sensory awareness. Wakefulness: high levels of sensory awareness, thought, and behavior. Biological rhythms: internal rhythms of biological activity, a recurring, cyclical pattern of bodily changes (like a woman’s menstrual cycle or body temperature fluctuation). Temperature fluctuation repeats every day and is a circadian rhythm (takes place over 24 hours). Sleep-wake cycle is another circadian rhythm. The hypothalamus, which controls homeostasis, helps with the biological system (rhythms) balance. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus is the brain’s clock. Our circadian cycles are alight with / affected by the outside world. The pineal gland releases melatonin which regulates our sleep-wake cycle. Sleep regulation refers to the brain’s control of switching between sleep and wakefulness as well as coordinating this cycle with the outside world. A mismatch between our internal circadian cycles and our environment results in jet lag. A rotating shift work causes sleep cycle problems as well. A person with sleep debt does not get enough sleep, so they have less alertness and mental efficiency. They can also have psychological and physiological consequences. Sleep-wake cycles are controlled by the thalamus, hypothalamus, and the pons. Our sleep patterns evolved as an adaptive response to predatory risk (increases in darkness). Sleep is essential to restore resources used during the day. Sleep deprivation results in memory and cognition problems which increase as sleep deprivation increases. There are 5 stages of sleep. Non-REM (NREM): divided into 4 stages. Stage 1 sleep: transition between awake and sleep. Respiration and heartbeat slow, muscle tension and core body temperature decrease. Both alpha (low frequency, high amplitude) and theta (lower frequency, higher amplitude) waves occur. It is easy to wake someone in stage 1. Stage 2 sleep: deep relaxation. Theta waves dominate, interrupted by sleep spindles (rapid burst of high frequency waves). A K-complex (high amplitude in response to environmental stimuli) may occur. Stage 3 and stage 4 sleep: deep, slow-wave sleep. Delta (low frequency, high amplitude) waves. Hard to awaken someone from these stages. Rapid eye movement (REM): eyes are moving quickly, brain waves appear similar in REM to brain waves while awake. There is a paralysis of muscle systems (except for circulation and respiration). REM sleep is homeostatically regulated. Sigmund Freud was big into studying sleep and dreams. Manifest content: actual content/story of a dream. Latent content: hidden meaning of a dream. Carl Jung says dreams tap into collective unconscious (repository information shared by everyone, consisting of universal symbols for all cultures). Rosalind Cartwright said dreams are significant to the dreamer’s life. Jobson said dreams represent a protoconsciousness which can be helpful during awakefulness. Lucid dreams contain aspects of wakefulness, where a person becomes aware that they are dream so they can control the dream. There are many disorders. Insomnia: consisten difficulty in falling/staying asleep. Age, drug use, exercise, bedtime routines can all contribute. Sleepwalking/somnambulism: sleeper engages in relatively complex behaviors ranging from wandering about to driving an automobile. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD): muscle paralysis does not occur, so sleeper has high levels of physical activity (esp in nightmares). Sleeper has no memory of occurance. Restless leg syndrome: uncomfortable leg sensations when trying to fall asleep. Night terrors: panics sleeper and causes screaming and escaping from immediate environment. Sleep apnea: sleeper’s breathing stops, snoring. (obstructive: airway is blocked, central: signals from brain regulating breath are blocked). Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): infant stops breathing during sleep, dies. Narcolepsy: cannot stop self from falling asleep at inopportune times. Associated with cataplexy (muscle weakness or paralysis of voluntary muscles). Often triggered by heightened arousal or stress.
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