Wold Civ 1
University of Memphis
Popular in World Civilization I Honors
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Popular in History
Bryce Balistreri MD
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Chapter 8 • Mediterranean Society:Classical Greece Early Development of Greek Society • Minoan Society (2200-1100 BCE) • Island of Crete • Major city: Knossos • C. 2200-1450 BCE-Crete a center of maritime trade (Phoenician-designed ships) • Undeciphered syllabic alphabet (Linear A) Decline of Minoan Society • After 1700 BCE, series of natural disasters • Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tidal waves • 1600-1450 BCE, reconstruction efforts; cities recover influence until 1100 BCE • Foreign invasions and domination by 1100 BCE; legacy of writing, maritime trade, and construction styles Mycenaean Society (1600-1100 BCE) • Indo-European invaders descend through Balkans into Peloponnesus, c. 2000-1450 BCE. • Influenced by Minoan culture • Major settlement: Mycenae • Military expansion throughout region; came into conflict with Minoan society. • Develops syllabic alphabet, called Linear B, from Minoan alphabet Chaos in the Eastern Mediterranean • Trojan War, c. 1200 BCE • Homer’s The Iliad • Sequel: The Odyssey • Political turmoil, chaos from 1100-800 BCE • Mycenaean civilization disappears The World of the Polis, 800-338 BCE • City-state • Urban center, dominating surrounding rural areas • Highly independent character • Monarchies • “Tyrannies,” not necessarily oppressive • Early Democracies Sparta • Highly militarized society • Subjugated peoples: helots • Serfs, tied to land • Outnumbered Spartans 10 to 1 by 6th c. BCE • Military society developed to control threat of rebellion Spartan Society • Austerity the norm • Boys removed from families at age seven (Girls also trained separately) • Received military training in barracks • Active military service follows • Marriage between 18 and 20, spouses rarely lived together • Relaxation of discipline by 4th c. BCE Athens • Development of early democracy • Free, adult males only (originally aristocracy) • Women, slaves excluded • Yet clear contrast between Athenian style of government and Spartan militarism Athenian Society • Maritime trade brings increasing prosperity beginning 7th c. BCE • Aristocrats dominate smaller landholders (Thetes) • Increasing socio-economic tensions • Class conflict Solon and Athenian Democracy • Aristocrat Solon mediates crisis as Archon (executive leader of the Assembly and the Senate) • Aristocrats to keep large landholdings • But forgive debts, ban debt slavery • Removed family restrictions and relaxed property qualifications for participation in public life • Instituted paid civil service Pericles • Ruled 461-429 BCE • High point of Athenian democracy • Aristocratic, but popular • Initiated massive public works • Encouraged cultural development Greek Colonization • Population expansion fuels colonization • Mainly in coastal Mediterranean and Black Sea regions • Sicily (Naples: “nea polis,” new city) • Southern France (Massalia: Marseilles) • Anatolia (Ionia) • Southern Ukraine Effects of Greek Colonization • Trade throughout region • Communication of ideas • Language, culture • Political and social effects Persian Wars (500-479 BCE) • Revolt against Persian Empire around 500 BCE in Ionia • Athens provides support to Ionian city-states with ships • Yet Greek rebellion crushed by Darius in 493 BCE; but Persians routed at Battle of Marathon (off Peloponnesian coast in 490 BCE) • Successor Xerxes burns Athens, but driven out as well The Delian League • Poleis create Delian League to prevent future Persian attacks • League led by Athens • Massive payments to Athens fuels Periclean expansion (of Athens) • Resented by other poleis The Peloponnesian War • Civil war in Greece, 431-404 BCE • Poleis allied with either Athens or Sparta • Athens forced to surrender; Athenian fleet burned into the sea • Sparta and other allies rule the Peloponnesus between them (Athens eclipsed) Kingdom of Macedon • Frontier region to north of Peloponnesus • King Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE) constructs huge military • 350 BCE, his forces encroach on Greek poleis to the south, controls region by 338 BCE Alexander of Macedon • “The Great,” son of Philip II • Rapid expansion throughout Mediterranean basin • Invasion of Persia successful (Battle of Gaugamela, c. 331 BCE) • Turned back in India when exhausted troops mutinied The Hellenistic Empires • After Alexander’s death, competition for empire • Divided by generals • Antigonus: Greece and Macedon • Ptolemy: Egypt • Seleucus: Persian Achaemenid Empire • Economic integration, intellectual cross-fertilization The Antigonid Empire • Smallest of Hellenistic Empires • Local dissent • Issue of land distribution • Heavy colonizing activity • Ruled until its conquest by the Romans in the second century BCE The Ptolemaic Empire • Wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires • Established state monopolies • Textiles, salt, beer • Capital: Alexandria • Important port city • Major museum, library • Ruled Egypt until Roman conquest in 31 BCE (Naval Battle of Actium) The Seleucid Empire • Massive colonization of Greeks • Export of Greek culture, values as far east as India • art • Ashoka legislates in Greek and Aramaic • Ruled until the Parthians re-established Persian rule in the second century BCE Trade and Integration of the Mediterranean Basin • Agriculture not a prominent feature of Greek economy • Pastoral (sheep-herding; wool) • Commercial (exchange of olive oil and wine for grain from Egypt, Sicily and Ukraine) • Timber and pitch from Macedon and Syria; salted fish from Spain and Black Sea coast; and iron and tin from Anatolia. Hellenistic Trade • Colonies and trading partners in Mediterranean supplied Greek societies • Merchants contracted with shipowners for transport of goods and with money- lenders for loans, credit. • Workshops established throughout Mediterranean for producing wares. • Trade established with Asia, through Persia and Bactria, for luxury items: gems, perfumes, jewelry, and aromatics • Trade through overland caravans or sea-lanes between Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, and Arabian Sea Panhellenic Festivals • Useful for integrating far-flung colonies • Olympic Games begin 776 BCE • Provide sense of collective identity Patriarchal Society • Women as goddesses, wives, or prostitutes • Limited exposure in public sphere (use of veil) • Sparta partial exception • Sappho • Role of infanticide and parricide in Greek society and culture Slavery • Scythians (Ukraine) • Nubians (Africa) • Use as chattel (servitude) • Sometimes used in business, education, and politics • Opportunity to buy freedom (manumission) Greek Language • Borrowed Phoenician alphabet • Added vowels • Allowed for communication of abstract ideas • Philosophy • Natural Sciences • Political science Socrates (470-399 BCE) • The Socratic Method • Student: Plato • Public “gadfly,” condemned on charges of immorality (“atheism”) among Greek youth • Forced to drink hemlock Plato (430-347 BCE) • Systematized Socratic thought through “dialogues” • Teclb • Philosophers should rule • Theory of Forms/Ideas-system for ethics (groundwork for philosophy) Aristotle (389-322 BCE) • Student of Plato • Broke with Plato’s theory of Forms/Ideas • Emphasis on empirical findings, innate reason • Massive impact on western thought through systems of classification in natural sciences Greek Theology • Polytheism • Zeus principal god • Religious cults • The Bacchae-Cult of Dionysus • Ties with Greek drama (tragedy)-domestication of rituals; playwrights (5th c. BCE): • Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides • Comedy: Aristophanes Hellenistic Philosophies • Epicureans • Pleasure, distinct from Hedonists • Skeptics • Doubted possibility of certainty in anything • Stoics • titu • Emphasis on inner peace
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