World Civ 1 Honors
World Civ 1 Honors HIST 1110
University of Memphis
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Chapter 8 Mediterranean Society: Rome Establishment of Rome • Legend of Romulus and Remus • Rome founded 753 BCE • Indo-European migrants c. 2000 BCE • Bronze c. 1800 BCE, Iron c. 900 BCE The Etruscans • Originally from Anatolia • Colonized Roman regions • Society declines late 6th c. BCE • Greek maritime attacks • Celtic invasions (Gauls) from northwest The Kingdom of Rome • Monarchy through 7th-6th c. BCE • Streets, temples, public buildings • Major center of trade routes in western Mediterranean (mouth of Tiber River) Establishment of the Republic • 509 BCE, Romans overthrow last Etruscan king • Roman forum built • Republican constitution • Executive: 2 consuls (one civil, one military) • Senate (civil/military leaders; served for life) • Assembly (Patricians; served for one year) Social Conflict • Patricians (aristocrats) • Plebeians (commoners) • Major class conflict 5th c. BCE • Plebeians allowed to elect tribunes for representation • Rights expanded through 3rd c. BCE (able to be elected to assemblies) • Yet 6-month appointments of dictators Expansion of the Republic • Dominated Etruscans and held off Gauls to the northwest • Expansion via military threat and incentives • Tax exemptions • Trade privileges • Citizenship The Punic Wars • Conflict with Carthage, 264-164 BCE • Three major wars over Sicilian grain supply • City of Carthage razed to ground (“scorched-earth” policy) • Between 215 and 148 BCE, Roman troops fought in Macedon and Anatolia, to defeat Antigonid and Seleucid rulers in eastern Mediterranean • Rome dominates Mediterranean by middle of 2nd c. BCE Imperial Expansion and Domestic Problems • Land Distribution • Perennial problem • Development of large latifundia • Unfair competition for smaller landholders Roman Civil Wars • Between 133 and 78 BCE, Rome undergoing civil wars • Jockeying for power between those supporting patricians, like Sulla, and those supporting plebeians, like the Gracchi brothers and Gaius Marius. • Principal issue land redistribution to lower-class peasants and better living conditions for urban workers. Julius Caesar • Nephew of reformer Marius • Escapes terror of Sulla • Relatively young; well-timed trip abroad • Rises to popularity • Public spectacles, victories in Gaul • Attacks Rome 49 BCE; defeats rival (civil) consul, Pompeii • Names himself dictator for life in 46 BCE Caesar’s Policies • Centralized military, governance under personal control • Redistribution of land to war veterans, other allies • Major building projects to lower urban unemployment • Extending Roman citizenship to provinces • Aristocrats threatened by policies, assassinate Caesar in 44 BCE Caesar Augustus • Civil conflict follows death of Julius Caesar • Nephew Octavian fights Mark Antony and Cleopatra; latter defeated in 31 BCE at naval battle at Actium. • Takes title “Augustus” in 27 BCE Augustus’ Administration • Monarchy disguised as a republic • Increasing centralization of political, military power • Stabilized empire • Death in 14 CE; reign marked the golden age of Roman empire Expansion and Integration of Empire • Roman occupation of increasingly remote areas by late second century CE • Gaul, Germany, Britain, Spain • Coordination of crop production, transport of natural resources • Developed infrastructure, cities emerge Pax Romana: “Roman Peace” • 27-250 CE • Facilitated trade, communication • Rowr • Roads and aqueducts • Postal service Roman Law • Twelve Tables, c. 450 BCE • Adapted to diverse populations under Roman rule • Innocent until proven guilty • Right to challenge accusers in court Commercial Agriculture and Trade • Latifundia: grain production for export • Regional specialization increases • Integration of Empire-wide economy • Greece: olives and vines (grapes) • Syria/Palestine: fruits, nuts, timber and wool • Gaul: grain, copper, vine cultivation • Spain: olive oil, wine, horses, metals • Italy: pottery, bronze, and glassware Family and Society • Pater Familias: “father of the family” • Right to arrange marriages, sell children into slavery • Women not allowed to inherit property • Not regularly enforced • Women of elite classes educated Wealth and Social Change • Newly rich challenge aristocracy • Yet poor class increasing in size • Distraction: “Bread and Circuses” • Slavery: 2nd c. CE, estimated at one third of Empire’s population • Agricultural work, quarries, mines • Chain labor • Revolt under Spartacus, 73 BCE Roman Religion • Polytheism • Major Gods (Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Pluto, Mercury, Vulcan, etc.) • Domestic gods (of the hearth and family) • Absorption of gods from other cultures (mainly Greece, but including Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Persia) Cicero and Stoicism • Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-46 BCE) • Major orator, writer, senator • Influenced by Greek thought • Proponent of Stoicism • Emperor Marcus Aurelius a Stoic philosopher Mithraism • From Zoroastrian myth: god of Sun, light • Roman version emphasized strength, courage and discipline (martial virtues) • Women not admitted into cult • Aailtli • Cult of Isis also popular among Roman soldiers Judaism in Early Rome • Jewish monotheism at odds with most ancient cultures • Refusal to recognize Rome’s state gods and the cult of the emperor • Repeated Jewish rebellions • Romans finally crush Jewish self-governance in Jewish Wars (66-70 CE) The Essenes • Messianic Jewish Cult • Baptism • Ascetic lifestyle • Dead Sea Scrolls Jesus of Nazareth • Jewish teacher • Moral code and reputation for miracles • Romans fear instigation of rebellion, crucify Jesus • Belief in Jesus’ resurrection, divine nature not until after death • Title Christ: “Anointed One” • Teachings recorded in New Testament long after death Early Christianity • Paul of Tarsus: extends teachings far beyond Jewish circles (among Greeks) • Local leaders of early Church: Bishops • Regional variation in doctrine and ritual • Nature of Jesus • Role of women • Gradual acceptance of core texts: “gospels” (canonical texts) • Roman persecution • Dramatic expansion among urban poor, youth, and women
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