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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Torres on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 310 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Lucero Radonic in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see People and Environment (I) in Social Work at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Lecture 7 Taxonomy A scheme of classification Groups are based on common characteristics between species Way how people name classify and organize we perceive and manipulate nature plant and animals 0 Named using binomial Latin names 0 In a taxonomic rank and the basic unit of classification Biological aspect Species are the result of an evolutionary process resulting from biological diversity Cultural aspect Species are also the result of human mental apparatus because it recognizes and gives names to patterns Ethnoecology Is the crosscultural study of how people perceive and manipulate the environment Meaning that it is the study of taxonomy 0 Studies traditional ecological knowledge indigenous knowledge but also studies western science 0 Different ways of understating the world and they are equally valuable 0 Local communities also have their own taxonomies Where does this field come from 0 Harold C Conklin 1957 Hanunoo agriculture slash and burn agriculture Cultivate an area burn it let it rest and then cultivate other areas 1 Caused deforestation to the eyes of most people 2 Cycle to cultivate o Fallow o Clearing o Drying 0 Burning o Planting 0 Growth 0 This practice that was demonized helped soil nutrition because it was synchronized and maintained the soil free of animals They values the knowledge the natives had about the soil Ethnoecology understanding natives Establish native language categories names They made interviews to understand how they organize their categories What is not ethno ecology Matching native names with western scientific names this is just a tiny component Compare the knowledge of natives and measure the legitimacy of their theories based on your own standards western science ethnocentric position Ethnoecologv is about understanding the logic behind local knowledge It is about learning what can we learn about the local environment Traditional ecological knowledge TEK The cumulative theoretical and practical knowledge about the environment that comes from a historical continuity in a particular place 0 Shared by members of the same gruoup It is also transmitted across generations process of enculturation o It is collectively owned 0 It is situated You have been living and experiencing that environment for a long time o It is distributed Not everyone in the society has the same knowledge Everyone plays a different role in society There is also inner group variability because not everyone is as knowledgeable o TEK is complex observationallygrounded valuable and complements scientific knowledge Shared characteristics from traditional ecological knowledge and western science 0 Based on cumulative collective wisdom o Respected experts example a shaman is the expert in medicine as a doctor is an expert in health for us 0 Learned from observation and experience 0 Pattern recognition and verification through repetition Differences between traditional ecological knowledge and western science 0 Oral tradition ecological vs written tradition western 0 Observation on the field ecological vs observation in the lab western 0 Holistic approach studies the relationship between the parts to understand the quotwhole ecological vs reductionist approach studies the properties of the part to understand the wholewestern o Longtime series of data in place ecological vs Short series over a large area western EXAMPLES of interaction between TEK and Western Science CASE 1 The acequias of New Mexico The canals were wasteful In the end they were not because it helped trees grow that helped agriculture So in the end the canals made of soil were better than the ones made of pavement because they were holistic CASE 2 Pastoralism in Western Africa Dry area How have they survived Western scientists tried to help them with technology but they did not understood the local practices therefore they did not helped the pastoralist in the long term Case 3 BHP diamond mine The Dene people and Canadas39s EIA Process In north Canada there is a lot of information that people gathered knowledge through generations Indigenous knowledge is a legitimate form of knowledge They worked with the Caribu hunters and learned things that only indigenous knew
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