World Civ 1
University of Memphis
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Chapter 9 Cross-Cultural Exchange on the Silk Roads The Silk Roads • Named for principal commodity from China • Dependent on imperial stability • Overland trade routes from China to Roman Empire • Sea Lanes and maritime trade as well Organization of Long-Distance Trade • Divided into small segments • Tariffs and tolls finance local supervision • Tax income incentives to maintain safety, maintenance of passage Cultural Trade: Buddhism and Hinduism • Merchants carry religious ideas along silk routes • India through Central Asia to East Asia • Cosmopolitan centers promote development of monasteries to shelter traveling merchants • Buddhism becomes dominant faith of silk roads, 200 BCE-700 CE Buddhism in China • Originally, Buddhism restricted to foreign merchant populations • Gradual spread to larger population beginning 5th c. CE Buddhism and Hinduism in SE Asia • Sea lanes in Indian Ocean • 1st c. CE clear Indian influence in SE Asia • Rulers called “rajas” • Sanskrit used for written communication • Buddhism, Hinduism increasingly popular faiths Christianity in the Mediterranean Basin • Christianity spreads through Middle East, North Africa, and Europe • Sizeable communities as far east as India • Judaism, Zoroastrianism also practiced Christianity in SW Asia • Influence of ascetic practices from India • Desert-dwelling hermits, monastic societies • After 5th c. CE, followed Nestorius • Emphasized human nature of Jesus The Spread of Epidemic Disease • Role of trade routes in spread of pathogens • Limited data, but trends in demographics clear • Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague • Effect: Economic slowdown, move to regional self-sufficiency Epidemics in the Han and Roman Empires • Decline in Chinese Population • Decline in Roman Population Internal Decay of the Han State in China • Court intrigue • Problem of land distribution • Large landholders develop private armies • Epidemics • Peasant rebellions • 184 CE Yellow Turban Rebellion Collapse of the Han Dynasty • Generals assume authority, reduce Emperor to puppet figure • Alliance with landowners • 200 CE Han Dynasty abolished, replaced by 3 kingdoms • Immigration of northern nomads increases Sinicization of Nomadic Peoples • “China-fication” • Adoption of sedentary lifestyle • uilr • Adoption of Buddhism • Adoption of Chinese names, dress, intermarriage Popularity of Buddhism and Daoism in China • Disintegration of political order casts doubt on Confucianism • Buddhism, Daoism gain in popularity Fall of the Roman Empire: Internal Factors • The Barracks Emperors • 235-284: 26 claimants to throne, all but one killed in power struggles • Epidemics • Disintegration of imperial economy in favor of local, regional self-sufficient economies Diocletian (r. 284-305 CE) • Divided empire into administrative districts • Co-emperors, dual lieutenants (“Tetrarchs”) • Currency, budget reform • Relative stability disappears after Diocletian’s death, civil war follows • Constantine emerges victorious Fall of the Roman Empire: External Factors • Visigoths, influenced by Roman law, Christianity • Formerly buffer states for Roman Empire • Attacked by Huns under Attila in 5th c. CE • Massive migration of Germanic peoples into Roman Empire • Sacked Rome in 410 CE, established Germanic emperor in 476 CE Cultural Change in the Roman Empire • Growth of Christianity • Constantine’s vision, 312 CE • Promulgates Edict of Milan, allows Christian practice • Converts to Christianity • 380 CE, Emperor Theodosius proclaims Christianity official religion of Roman Empire
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