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psy2012 Week 9 of notes

by: Lauren Carstens

psy2012 Week 9 of notes PSY2012

Marketplace > Florida State University > PSY2012 > psy2012 Week 9 of notes
Lauren Carstens
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This week, we began and got through most of chapter 10.
Melissa Shepard
Class Notes
Psychology, week 9, chapter 10, cognitive behavior
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at Florida State University taught by Melissa Shepard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 03/18/16
Psychology Chapter 10: Human Development “Womb to Tomb” Developmental Psychology  Studies how behavior (and mental processes) change over the entire life span Post Hoc Fallacy  Logical error where you assume that A causes B just because B came after A o Ex: “All serial killers drink milk as babies, so milk causes people to become serial killers” Bidirectional Influences  Human development is almost always a two-way street  Children’s development influences their experiences, but their experiences also influence their development  Influences of Early Experience o Early input from the world exerts a significant impact on development… but so does all other input throughout life o Myths  Infancy determinism  How you end up as an adult is largely determined by your first three years of life  Your first three years in life are more influential on who you will be as an adult than later in life  Childhood Fragility  Idea that children are very fragile, delicate creatures so if they have any traumatic experiences, it will effect them for the rest of their lives How do changes in our development occur?  Continuity vs. stages? o Continuity view  Developmental changes are uniform and gradual  Like a pine tree o Stages view  Changes in our human developmental can be very rapid with qualitatively different stages evident across the lifespan  Like a butterfly o Some aspects of our development follows continuity and some follows stage  Not just one view throughout our life Methodological Considerations  How to best measure developmental change? o Cross-sectional design  Measures people of different ages to look at age- differences, not intra-individual change  Looking at differences between individuals could have outside factors besides age  Recruit a sample of 20-year olds and a sample of 75-year olds  Give all participants the same test and look at differences between the two groups  Cohort Effect: Sets of people who lived during one period can differ in some systematic way from sets of people who lived during a different period (disadvantage of cross- sectional design)  We can better study intra-individual change by looking at the same individuals over time (to avoid the cohort effect)  Longitudinal Study o Longitudinal Study  Records observations of the same people throughout their life  Disadvantages:  Very costly (paying the participants for that long of time) and time-consuming (over a lot of the person’s life)  May suffer form selective attrition: Not everyone who starts out in the study may continue the study (there may be differences between the people who stay I your study and those who quit) Cognitive Development  Theories of cognitive development o Numerous explanations of how we acquire the ability to learn, think, communicate and remember over time o Cognitive development theories differ in three ways  1. Stage-like vs. gradual changes in understanding  2. Domain-general vs. domain-specific  Domain general: General overarching changes in cognitive development that affect various types of cognitive development together  Domain specific: Cognitive changes occur within domains (within reading ability then reasoning ability then ability to count)  3. Principal source of learning (some theories focus on different sources and how they lead to changes)  Schemas o Mental representations of the world o Organize and interpret incoming information  How we determine that a dog is a dog when we see it (we compare it to our mental representation of a dog) o Act as “mental filters” o Children form schemas naturally  We don’t have to teach them to children  They change over the course of development o Assimilation: New info is interpreted in ways that fit existing schemas  Make experiences fit the schema  Ex: Seeing a pig for a first time and thinking it’s a dog because you know a dog has four legs and a tail o Accommodation: Existing schemas are adjusted to fit new info  Make schema fit the experience  When someone tells you it’s a pig, you form a new schema for pigs and refine your schema for dogs  Piaget’s Stages o As children age, they advance through different stages of cognitive development  Each stage is characterized by a different type of thinking o Each stage is qualitatively distinct  Stage like view (not gradual, continuous) o All children advance through the stages in the same order  We don’t skip through different stages in a different order o Sensorimotor stage: The first stage of cognitive development  Lasts form birth to age 2  Infants understand the world through their own actions  At the beginning, babies lack object permanence but they develop it through this stage  Object Permanence: The awareness that objects continue to exist, even when they disappear form view o Preoperational Stage: the second stage of cognitive development  Lasts from age 2 to age 7  Children learn to construct mental representations of experience  Start playing with puzzles  Capable of symbolic behavior  Ex: A kid using a banana as a phone  Limits of this stage:  Children tend to be egocentric: Unable to adopt the perspective of another person o Don’t understand that people could have different beliefs than they do  Lack the understanding of conservation: The concept that physical properties of an object will remain the same despite changes in physical appearance o They don’t understand that two glasses may have the same amount of milk even though they’re different sizes o Concrete Operational Stage: The third stage of cognitive development  Age 7 to age 12  Now they are no longer egocentric (hopefully) and have developed the understanding of conservation  Children become capable of logical reasoning (pertaining to physical objects)  Understand reversibility (you can count forward and backward)  Can understand that you can freeze something and that you can reverse that by melting the ice o Formal Operational Stage: Forth stage of cognitive development  Age 12 and beyond  Adolescents become capable of abstract reasoning  Ex: Hypothetical situations and logic  Are able to problem solve with logic instead of only trial and error  Just because we are capable of hypothetical reasoning, does not mean we always do so o Is Piaget’s theory correct?  One major criticism: cognitive development is much more continuous than suggested by Piaget’s “stage” theory (not as abrupt as his theory suggests)  Second major criticism: Recent research has shown that children may show some cognitive abilities earlier than Piaget thought


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