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Date Created: 10/07/14
Onset of the Cold War and the Korean War Truman 19451952 Eisenhower 19521960 John Kennedy 19601963 Lyndon B Johnson 19631968 Robert Nixon 19681973 Onset of the Cold War After WWII the US was in a stronger position o Industry wasn39t ruined o Wellequipped army o Possessed bomb UN gave the US a sense of peace Europe SU and Asia in ruins after WWII US and SU were the world39s superpowers Transition to peacetime Government made plans for postwar adjustment Servicemen Readjustment Act GI Bill o G government issue o Set up a system of loans for G s to buy homes farms and get a college education Veteran Administration o Built hospitals vocational centers to learn job skills Truman and the Economy Cancel war production acts Full Employment Act o To promote national economy o Increased minimum wage Continued deficit spending to get people back to work Repeal of wartime taxes 195039s economic boom Labor 1946 strikes The public related union membership to communism Republicans said because Truman was a democrat and was in favor of unions that he was soft on communism TaftHartley Act 1947 o Abolished cosed shop idea cosed shop have to join a union to get certain jobs Election of 1948 Democrat coalition falls apart when southern white democrats don39t support Truman State39s Rights Party dixiecrats o Southern white former democrats o Candidate Storm Thurmand strong racist Truman democrat vs Dewey republican Truman won narrowly Fair Deal Program Progressive Successes o Raised minimum wage o Social Security Act extended social security o Housing Act provided lowincome housing Cold War Problems between the US and the Soviet Union 1 How should postwar Europe be controlled By who 2 How would it be rebuilt By who 3 How to disarm now that the atomic bomb is created Germany divided into 4 zones o West British US French o East SU Countries were supposed to have the right to determine their own government system o Stalin believed all western countries wanted to destroy SU o Places Eastern European nations under communist rule Churchill gives his Iron Curtain Speech o Iron curtain division west and east Europe Economic Aid o US does not give economic aid to SU Arms Race US vs SU o SU discovered that the US had built an atomic bomb o SU built an atomic bomb 1943 US Beliefs About the Soviet Union 1 SU was intent on dominating the world 2 Communism would be monolithic 3 If 1 country falls to communism that nation39s neighbor will also fall to communism domino effect 4 Containment was the best way to fight communism don39t let it spread o George Keenan wrote about this in Article X o Adopted by Truman foreign policy from 19471989 National Security National Security Act 1947 o To modernize military capabilities o Replaced the War Department with the Department of Defense Coordinated the army navy and air force Created the National Security Council to make foreign policy Created the CIA Central Intelligence Agency Adopted NSC68 which quadrupled the amount of money spent on defense Convinced the public that a buildup of arms was necessary for defense Arms race with Russia Marshall Plan In 1947 Truman used the Containment Policy in W Europe W Europe in economic crisis worried they would fall to communism Secretary of State George Marshall gave 13 billion to WEurope to recover By 1951 the economy recovered and the threat of communism was over America wanted to include Germany in the Marshall Plan but Berlin was still divided and the SU wouldn39t allow the US to help Alliances SU set up a blockade around E Berlin US flew over Berlin to drop supplies Berlin Airlift 19481949 SU lifted the blockade but Germany was still divided East Germany becomes a Soviet Satellite OOOO Czechoslovakia becomes a Soviet Satellite 1948 o Encourages the West to set up an alliance system NATO Northern Atlantic Treaty Organization Warsaw Pact o SU and Satellite nations response to NATO NATO and the Warsaw Pact are Military Alliances o Attack on one country in the alliance is seen as an attack on all the countries Korean Conflict After Japanese troop pulled out of Korea Allie occupation took over o Above the 38quot parallel ine SU o Below the 38 parallel ine US French British US said they would stay in Korea until they had a free election o UN commission would carry out the election SU wouldn39t let the UN in NKorea Elections in SKorea elect a democratic government NKorean troops armed with Soviet weapons invade SKorea 1950 o Seoul falls to NKorea Douglas MacArthur leads UN forces o Bulk of UN forces are form the US o Invades Inchon South Korea China has already turned communist o Denounces the UN invasion into SKorea o Sends Chinese troops into NKorea MacArthur calls for an invasion of China o Wants to bomb bridges and military bases Truman doesn39t want to expand the war o Wants a truce with Korea and China o MacArthur denounces Truman o Truman removes MacArthur for insubordination Not a popular decision because MacArthur is seen by the public as a WWII hero End of the War 1953 o Armistice is signed between UN NKorea and china o Establishes a demilitarized zone along the 38 parallel o NKorea remains communist US feels the containment policy is working Anti Communism at Home Canadian government discovered a communist spy ring 1946 o Scares the US Truman makes Executive Order 9835 which established Loyaty Board 1947 1951 o FBI investigated federal employees o Mostly dismissed people for other reasons alcoholics gay etc o By 1953 thousands of employees resigned o 560 fired for being disloyal Smith Act 1940 o Illegal to advocate or teach the idea of overthrowing the government o Dennis vs US 1951 Supreme Court upheld the act when leaders of the American Communist Party were jailed for advocating the overthrow of the government o Some argued it was against the right of free speech McCarran Internal Security Act 1950 o Unlawful to establish a totalitarian government o Those in the communist party couldn39t travel or be employed o Created detention camp for subversives House on UnAmerican Activities Committee o Hiss Case 1948 using testimony from former communist agents the HUAC found there was evidence of communist activity in government o Alger Hiss highranking government official o Former SU agent accused Hiss of passing secrets to the SU o Richard Nixon investigated and sent Hiss to jail for perjury Rosenburg Case 1953 o When the SU tested their atomic bomb in 1949 the public thought spies had given the SU the secrets to building the bomb o An employee who worked in the US on the atomic bomb accused his sister and her husband of telling the SU secrets o Convicted of treason and executed HUAC investigate the film industry and blacklisted actors who were suspected of having communist sympathy Election of 1952 Eisenhower was elected president and Nixon was elected vice president Nixon was accused of using campaign funds for personal use o Gave the Checkers Speech where he denied these accusations Eisenhower39s Domestic Program Modern Republicanism tried to balance the budget and end deficit spending extended social security created the Department of Health Education and Welfare Interstate Highway Act o 27 million to build freeways o led to newjobs o allowed for a fast escape in case of a bombing McCarthyism o Senator Joseph McCarthy o Wanted to increase his popularity so he accused people of being communist He accused people in the State Department and military Very popular ArmyMcCarthy Hearings 1954 a Senate committee held televised hearings on Communist Infiltration in the Army McCarthy statements were shown to have no evidence Eisenhower and the Cold War The New Look o Eisenhower39s foreign policy o Created by his Secretary of State John Dulles Brinkmanship o Believed that if the US pushed China or SU to the brink of war they would back down because they know we were superior nuclear weapons o massive retaiation Dulles wanted to use bombs more effective less expensive so there would be money left over to balance the budget Covert Action o The government used undercover intervention in 3rd world countries o Iran 1953 the CIA helped to overthrow the new government who was going to nationalize oil and not sell it to the US more less and returned the Shah to power because he promised to give the US good prices for oil and bought a lot of American arms o Guatemala 1954 the CIA overthrew a liberal government and supported a dictator who was not communist o Corrupt dictators were often supported by the government because they were not communist Eisenhower and the Middle East Foreign Problems in the Middle East o Dependence on foreign oil o Conflict between Israel and Palestine o Arab nationalism Israel was created in 1948 o Surrounding countries tried to prevent Israel from being established Suez Crisis 1959 o Egypt seized the Suez Canal from the British and French This threatened WEurope s access to oil Israel Britain and France attack Egypt to try and gain control of the Canal Eisenhower makes a UN resolution condemning the attack against Egypt OOOO Israel Britain and France withdraw The Eisenhower Doctrine 1957 o Pledge economic and military aid to any country in the Middle East threatened by communism Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC o In 1960 Arab nations and Venezuela create OPEC o Becomes a foreign policy issue because the US is so dependent on foreign oil US and Soviet Relations Stalin dies in 1953 Khrushchev takes over Spirit of Geneva 0 Eisenhower and the new SU leader meet in Geneva to try and slow down the Cold War 0 Open Skies Eisenhower wanted each country to be able to take pictures of the other country from planes this would eliminate the possibility of a surprise attack they would have seen it in the pictures and been prepared 0 SU rejects Open Skies o 1956 SU says they support peaceful coexistence 1957 SU were the 1 to launch a satellite Sputnik 0 US was afraid SU had more advanced technology 0 US response try to build more rockets National Defense and Education Act 0 Billions of dollars are put into schools to create more math and science classes National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA 0 Created to direct efforts to build missiles and explore outer space The missiles that launched Sputnik had the capability to launch warheads to the US which scared the US U2 Incident 0 US was secretly spying in U2 planes over SU which Eisenhower denied 0 A U2 plane was shot down 0 US and SU were supposed to meet in Paris but when the spy planes were discovered the SU refused to meet because the US had lied Communism in Cuba Fidel Castro 0 overthrew the Cuban dictator Batista 1959 o Marxist When the US cut off trade with Cuba Castro looked to the SU for help Eisenhower had the CIA train Cuban exiles to retake Cuba 0 Bay of Pigs 1961 Cuban exiles tried to begin a revolution but no troops were sent in Disaster
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