Week 4--Lectures 8-10
Week 4--Lectures 8-10 Art History 201
Popular in History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals
Popular in Art History
This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Acierno on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Art History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Prof Dale in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see History of Western Art 1: From Pyramids to Cathedrals in Art History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Lecture 8 Civic and Sacred Space in the City States of Ancient Greece September 21 2015 Civic and Sacred Space The planning of cities architecture Sacred 0 Distinctive orders of temples There is a shift away from ruler centered society to a fusion of religion and anthropomorphic deities Historic Background From lecture slide Minoans ca 17001400 BCE inhabitants of the island of Crete associated with the famous legends of King Minos Mycenaeans on the Greek mainland of the Peloponnese ca 1500900 BCE o Peloponnese was the fortress city of Mycene Greek City States of Peloponnesus 0 Ca 1000800 Mycenae succumbs to Dorians Ionians settle in Aegean islands 0 776 BCE first quotOlympic Games 0 Ca 7607loBCE Homer s Illiad 0 Ca 600450 BCE stabilization of Greek city states on mainland and in Asia Minor creates market for art 0 508507 BCE democratic government established in Athens 0 546 BCE Persian invasion of Greek city states in Ionia under Cyrus the Great 0 480 BCE Persia invades Greek mainland 0 479 BCE Greek city states unite under Athenian leadership Perakles against common enemy The Greek City States focus a lot of temple architecture ie Temple or Hera Lecture Themes From Lecture Slide Palace culture at Knossos based on religious rites bullleaping rather than military exploits open courtyard plan Ancient Mycenae develops military culture in fortified city states on Greek Peloponnesus Civic Temples of Greece ca 7SOBCE replace royal megaron shift from royal to sacred power in selfruling polis citystate 0 Creation of Orders formalized vocabulary of Greek religious architecture based on aestheticised structure with harmony symmetria of parts to whole human scale tied to anthropomorphic concept of gods 0 Development of relief sculpture to adorn temples in which religion put to the service of state concerns emphasis on theme of noble warrior embodied in the idealized male nude and the good death Palace of Knossos o This was basically a small town About 40000 people lived there 0 Sir Arthur Evans 0 O O The archaeologist that found this place His main concern was the language He discovered Linear A and Linear B which are thought to be the beginnings to a start of writing history 0 There were no walls 0 There was a large central court 0 The palace had a very open architecture concept which is very common in Ancient Greece 0 The whole palace was all on one level 0 0 There was no sense of hierarchy and no central axis to enter The main entrance was at the north west 0 Some people like to speculate that this is a representation of the mythical Labyrinth People also think this might be the representation of King Mynas palace 0 We do not know if there was a king here or not 0 The columns inside are very characteristic to this time period 0 0 Mthft i J O O O O The top was like a cushion the ceiling is pushing it down The shaft was larger fatter at the top than the bottom otaur I I i This is a wall painting at the palace It shows youths jumping over the back of a very large bull The people and the bull are all in perfect profile Skin Colors I It is thought that bull leaping was the way to become a man so a possibility is that the child who is jumping over the bull is darker skinned because he is now a man and the two white figures watching aren t men yet It is thought that the men were darker since they worked outside and the young boys still were indoors most of the time I Another thought is that the white figures are women Women spent most of their time indoors so they would naturally have lighter skin This theory is not as common because it is hard to distinguish anatomy on the figures 0 Bull Leaping I A sort of initiation I Possibly a reflection of the Minotaur legend I An example of human mastery over animals The bull could be a replacement of the lion common in Mesopotamia I It is thought that is could also be a replacement of human sacrifice There is not much evidence that this was a warlike culture Mycenae This was the city that was the inspiration or Homer s The Iliad Agamemnon was from this city There is a grave circle in the city with 6 graves inside of it It dates back to before the walls were built Heinrich Schliemann the excavator of this site thought that it was the burial of Agamemnon and his family but we don t have any way to prove or disprove this theory The palace had a very open architecture complex The Megaron was the great hall Funerary Mask o Schliemann believed that this was the funerary mask of Agamemnon Repousse pushed out from behind o Eyebrows make it seem like the person was alive but the eyes closed make it seem like it was a death mask Dagger Blade o This is a scene of a lion hunt They may point back to Mesopotamia Neither of these pieces are likely to have anything to do with Agamemnon at all The ideas are interpretations of a mixture of myth and history The Lioness Gate 0 The stones used were 2025 feet thick I These were called cyclopean stones named for the cyclopes because they were so big and heavy o The arch in the middle with a different stone was called a relieving arch I It was made of lighter weight stone and was impregnable I The column is styled like the Minoans o Mounted on an altarlike structure o It is thought to have been used as a symbol of Hera the wife of Zeus She is the goddess of marriage and fertility I The lionesses are the symbol of female deities 0 There was no mortar all the bricks were tightly stacked The temples all followed a basic model 0 Rectangular hall with solid walls and columns Temple of Hera Basilica o This is the best example of a Greek Temple 0 The architecture is routed in the ground o It is elevated from the ground instead of on the same level 0 There are three steps leading up to the main floor of the temple o It is in peristyle 0 9X18 o The plan was in contour style It was very spread out and not necessarily to scale 0 The lines around the sides are the steps 0 The support system columns were visible but aesthetically pleasing 0 Columns 0 Drums fit together similar to the Egyptian columns 0 Marble with vertical quotconcave channels running up them 0 The capitol is the top part of the column I The cushion effect is extreme here It looks like the top is made of a soft malleable material but it isn t 0 They are not entirely straight I There is a curvature they bulge in the middle I Some have come to call this quotcigar shaped 0 Being able to look and appreciate the architecture was very important to the Greeks Temple of Athena Aphaia o This is a more complete temple 0 The triglyphs on the top of the temple might be imitating wooden beams o Metopes were sometimes carved o Sculptures o Represents Greek Mythology I Athena was at the central axis I She is sending the Greeks to Troy 0 The triangle is an awkward shape for continuative narratives o Archaic smile I Typical for the uncharacteristic smile in this time especially when the figure is supposed to be dying It represents the ideal form not in distress happy to die a good death 0 The body was very detailed I Muscles and ligaments Olympia o This is where competitions to become godlike took place 0 The Olympics were started here 0 The relief from the slides from the Temple of Zeus shows the link between humans and the gods 0 The figures are idealized I Look real yet they are perfected and unemotional Lecture 9 Greek Sculpture Idealized Bodies and Gender September 23 2015 Lecture Themes from slide 0 Creation of freestanding sculptures of Kouroi and Kore figures as celebratory monuments for warriors and athletes and as exvotos 0 Definition of Gender roles male nudity associated with heroic virtue on the battle field and in athletic competition clothed female bodies associated with goddesses and virgins o Stylistic shift towards greater naturalismillusionism supported by observation of the body technical innovations including bronze casting and anthropomorphic conception of Greek godsapotheosis of heroes 0 Classical ideal balances the real with elements of the abstract ideal suggesting value vested in earlier style Male vs Female sculptures 0 Male Kouroi o Youthful Male nudity I Also known as heroic nudity 0 There is implied movement to the figure 0 Female Kore A 4 H v a Youthful 0 Fully clothed I Yet you can see the female features through the clothes as if they were see through breasts 0 These are more often offering figures 0 These are most often celebratory figures or offering figures Stylistic changes 0 It is a myth that stylistic change is directly associated with artistic progress 0 Artists tend to strive for greater allusion therefore progressing to more realistic sculptures and paintings 0 quotstyle will progress 0 Change in Greek sculpture 0 Change in material 0 Change in exposure of the body I There is a growing interest in the body I They were striving to have the perfect or ideal body 0 To be like the gods 0 Myth of Pygmalion o Pygmalion was a Greek sculpture form the island of Cyprus 0 It was said that he was so unhappy with how sculptures were being made that he decided to make a perfect image of the goddess Aphrodite He made it so realistic that he fell in love with the statue itself 0 This is the quintessential idea for Greek sculpture to make it so life like it seems real New York Kouros This was not created with stylistic ideal in mind The fists are clenched and held strictly at the sides 0 This shows great tension throughout the arms The anatomy is highly idealized The almond shaped eyes and one foot forward with the fists clenched straight to the sides is similar to the Egyptian statues suggesting that there might have been a correlation between the Egyptians and Greeks at this time There are four sides with four different views of the face 0 Keeps the shape of the block it was carved from The hair is very tight and stiff This would have been seen as very lifelike when the statue was made This was made with the intention of showing people what the ideal form was Comparing this with the Ka statue of Menkaure and his wife o 7 o The Egyptian statues were more illusionistic Greeks were more abstract 0 Similarities I The way it was carved I The blank straight ahead stare I Upper torso pronounced and on full display I The eyes are almond shaped and the arms are straight to the sides with clenched fists Beauty 0 Arete notion of personal autonomy and nobility o Kalokagathia moral and physical beauty nobility 0 Quote from Simonides a poet 556 468 BC 0 quotThe man of arete must be in hand and foot alike foursquare an ashlar cut without flaw Expression that draws on sculpture I The New York Kouros 0 Quote from Porphyry quoting Aeschylus 525456BCE o quotThe old statues although simply made are held to be divine the new excite admiration for their outstanding workmanship but give less of an impression of divinity I This shows the quality of divinity and magic How form changes 0 Kouros of Kroisos from Anavysos ca 525 BCE o Similarities to the New York Kouros I The pose 0 Blank Stare o Fists held in tension at the sides 0 One foot forward suggesting movement 0 Differences from the New York Kouros I Illusionism o Softer o More defined muscles 0 Face 0 More realistic yet still idealized o Mouth I Gives impression of movement because of the smile called the Archaic smile o The back is more relaxed o The inscription at the bottom of this statue seems to speak for the statue I quotStop and grieve at the tomb of the dead Kroisos slain by wild Ares in the front rank of battle I This was a commemorative funerary statue meant to be used to remember the dead Kroisos Female Figures o This is life size 0 Fully frontal o Legs are held together there is not one in front of the other as seen in the Kouros o The eyes are attentive 0 One arm is raised to the chest I This is associated with prayer or salutation o It is thought that this could be the figure of a goddess o The lower body is almost completely concealed o The upper body is fully clothed but the defined breasts suggests the femininity o Peplos Kore Kore 679 from Athenian Acropolis Front view marble ca 530 BCE 0 Fully frontal o The upper torso is fully clothed but has the curvature of the breasts suggesting femininity o The lower torso is fully clothed 0 Face I Eyes are attentive I Archaic smile o On the back there is a curvature of the body 0 There are many debates about what this figure is Because one arm is missing we are not entirely sure There have been reconstructions suggesting this is a figure of Athena holding a bow and arrow Also there have been reconstructions suggesting a devotee holding an offering 0 Kore from Acropolis painted marble ca 510 BCE o Modeled differently than the others 0 The cloth seems to be silk and thinner than the others 0 Similar to the other two female figures though are the eyes smile and archaic style 0 The female figures had similar changes that the male figures did Most sculptures were intricately painted with multiple bright colors We do not see much of that now because it has all worn away You can see traces of color left of the Peplos Kore A lot of the sculptures we find today are broken or in pieces It is thought that during the war the Persians came in and tried to bury the statues that had references to gods that they didn t worship It is also thought that they could have been buried and broken by invaders The Male Athlete 0 These statues could commemorate a victory You didn t have to be dead to have a statue put up for you 0 Example of thi 3 11 O l A 4 x o This was found in the foundations of Acropolis o Inscription I quotVictor in the boys footrace of the Panatheanaia Kallias son of Dydmaios dedicated this statue to Athena 0 Men were judged on their bodies 0 Kritios Boy Parian marble from the Athenian Acropolis ca 480 BCE New York Kouros 600 0 Much more realistic than either of the other two male figures we have seen 0 He is turned slightly 0 The eyes are blank sockets because material was put into them I Gave the eyes more a more lifelike appearance What motivated this change in sculpture o A desire to show the body 0 Wanted to read the ideal body image 0 Concepts related to Kritios boy 0 Euandria quotfine manliness o krisis kallous quotbattle of the beautifulhandsome o Kalos kagathos quotbeautiful character 0 Panathenaia competition of 10 Athenian phylai voting tribes 0 Beauty and handsomeness was equated with nobility Warrior from the sea of Riace Riace Bronzes bronze 46050 BCE o This is the best example of bronze casting o Riace is a town in southern Italy 0 This statue appears to come alive The hair is curly and very detailed The material gives the body a shiny look The eyes had stuff put in them to make them more lifelike The mouth is open so you can see the teeth The turning of the head suggests he is looking at someone or something The arms are held away from the body and not super close The legs are held far apart and very relaxed One shoulder is back on is forward He looks like he is in motion OOOOOOOOO Zeus of Artemision cast bronze ca 460450 BCE o The eyes are empty because there was stuff in there 0 The arms are at complete extension 0 This gives the sculpture the ability to show the musculature of the arms Bronze Casting o This gave the artist the ability to make the sculpture have more movement since hallow bronze would be very light and wouldn t break or crack 0 Process this is slide 16 from the lecture power point llrlsnulrrl Ii rn nlete umulel mm 4n lri 11e1 r LZtLlIEiF Iii 1iJ1l igmnumtl m in mid 1 z39i11391quotlErrsmze Tu Earnwe rz39i1i11l l39Jt39iu11r1 Myron Discobolos discusthrower marble ca 450 BCE 0 Figure is in motion 0 Illusions similar to previous works seen Polykleitos Doryphoros The Canon ca 440 BCE o This is an example of contrapposto style 0 The almost unnatural relaxed post that looks natural 0 The hair and vacant stare are similar to previous works but this statue does not have the archaic smile Lecture 10 The Parthenon Athenian Idealism and Triumph InClass Discussion 3 September 25 2015 Some important dates from the lecture slide 0 480 BCE Persians sack acropolis 479 Delian League led by Athens defeats Persia at Marathon 0 46020 BCE Perikles as Strategos general and leader of Athens constructs temples on Acropolis o 458 BCE Athens defeats Corinth at Megara 0 431404 BCE Peloponnesian War Athens vs Sparta Athens 0 The Acropolis was the highest point in Athens 0 This was a symbolic representation of the meeting of heaven and earth 0 Athena was the patron goddess of Athens The Peloponnesian War took place in 431404 BCE and was after Perikles Lecture Themes main points from the slide 0 Temples as Victory Monuments following defeat of Persians o Parthenon specifically I Dedicated to the victory over Persia 0 Celebration of civic religion patron deities and ritual of the Panatheanaia 0 Every four years there was a large festival at the Panatheanaia I This was the dedication of a new peplos dedicated to Athena o Perception and meaning of Optical Refinements in architecture 0 This is the fascination with the perception of art 0 Sculptural program and classical style as embodiment of Athenian selfimage as model citizens warriors pious devotees godlike o Focuses on style but also content Poseidon and Athena competed against each other to become the patron god of this city Athena gave the citizens an olive tree which is believed to be why she won their favor There used to be a different temple before the Parthenon o The Persians destroyed this first temple during an invasion 0 The Athenians didn t want to rebuild but Perikles said that they should make a new one commemorating their defeat over the Persians and to honor and thank Athena 0 They left the foundation of the first temple as a memorial similar to the twin towers 0 Also parts of the first temple were used in the construction of the wall built Parthenon o A great example of a Doric temple 0 8x17 columns 0 48 ratio 0 This is complex yet consistent o Adjustments o It was built on uneven ground 0 There is an upward curve on the horizontal line I On the short sides the curvature is 2 inches I On the long sides the curvature is 4 inches 0 The great statue of Athena o The story of Pandora is on the base of the statue 0 Athena is presenting victory Nike to the people o It was intended to be viewed 0 Pediments 0 East birth of Athena 0 West the contest between Athena and Poseidon o Metopes 0 Many mythical battles are shown on these I Ex centaurs amazons gods giants etc o All the themes included battles 0 Most were mythical o Frieze on the inside 0 Procession of Athenian society bringing the new pelos to Athena I The Athenians appear with the gods Dionysos from East Pediment of Parthenon marble 44734 BCE 0 Very relaxed pose o No clothes at all 0 Possibly was holding up a cup for drinking Fallen Warrior from West Pediment of Temple of Aphaia on Aegina 0 Falling forward as if wounded in combat 0 He is probably dying yet he still has the archaic smile on his face Parthenon Panathenaic Procession North Frieze Horsemen 44738 BCE o The figures are quotpacked in tight showing the dimensions within the piece 0 The people are too big on the horses they are larger than life