Biopsychology Notes from Reading
Biopsychology Notes from Reading PSYC 1101 B
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Boone on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 B at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
31 Biopsychology Human Genetics Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection by Charles Darwin o Organisms better suited for their environment will survive and reproduce while poorly suited organisms will die Genetic Variation Genetic difference between individuals Chromosomes long strings of genetic material DNA DNA helix shaped molecule made up of nucleotide base pairs Genes sequences of DNA that control or partially control a number of visible characteristics hair color eye color etc Allele speci c variation of a gene 1 gene may have many alleles Genotype genetic makeup of an individual Phenotype individual s inherited physical characteristics Most traits are controlled by multiple genes but some like cleft chin are controlled by only 1 gene from each parent Dominant Allele dominant trait If 1 parent has 2 recessive alleles the child is guaranteed to have the trait Homozygous when someone has 2 copies of the same allele Heterozygous when someone has a combination of alleles for a given gene Recessive allele recessive trait person will only possess this allele in their phenotype if they are homozygous with the recessive allele Sicklecell anemia is caused by the pairing of 2 recessive genes Polygenic when traits are controlled by more than 1 gene example height Mutation sudden permanent change in a gene 9 Most harmful but some are bene cial GeneEnvironment Interactions Range of Reaction our genes set the boundaries within which we can operate and our environment interacts with the genes to determine where in that range we fall o Example if someone has a genetic makeup consisting of high levels of intellectual potential and they are raised in a rich stimulating environment then they are more likely to achieve their full potential than if they were raised under conditions of dep va on o Genes set de nite limits on potential and environment determines how much potential is achieved 32 Genetic environmental correlation our genes in uence our environment and our environment in uences the expression of our genes 9 Genes and environment in uence each other o Example the child of an NBA star is exposed to basketball at an early age This exposure can allow the child to realize their athletic potential So the parent s genes in uence the child s environment and that environment is well suited to support the athletic potential Epigenetics eld that studies how the same genotype can lead to different phenotypes o Example in identical twins same genetic makeup but different phenotype gt Cells of the Nervous System Nervous system composed of 2 basic cell types glial or glia and neurons o Glial cells provide scaffolding that the nervous system is built on help neurons line up closely with each other and allow neuronal communication provide insulation of neurons transport nutrients and waste and mediate immune responses o Neurons interconnected information processors that are essential for all tasks of the nervous system gt Neuron Structure Outer surface made up of a semipermeable membrane allows smaller molecules and molecules without electric charge to pass through while stopping large or charged molecules Soma cell body where the nucleus is located Dendrites branching extensions from the soma input sites where signals are received from other neurons Axon major extension form of soma where signals are transmitted electrically Terminal Buttons ends of an axon contain synaptic vessels and house neurotransmitters Myelin sheath formed by glial cells coat an axon and acts as an insulator to increase travel speed of signals o CRUCIAL Neuronal signal moves rapidly down the axon to the terminal buttons where synaptic vessels release neurotransmitters to the synapse 33 Synapse very small space between 2 neurons where the communication occurs Receptors proteins on the cell surface where neurotransmitters attach vary in shape with different shapes matching different neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter and receptor have a lockandkey relationship so they always know which one to bind to Neuronal Communication Neuron is in a uid environment extracellular uid and contains uid inside of it intracellular uid the neuronal membrane keeps these uids separate o These uids must be electrically different charge depends on ions dissolved in each uid Membrane potential difference in charge across the membrane provides energy for the signal Resting potential membrane potential is held in a state of readiness between signals o Like a stretched out rubber band waiting to spring When the neuron receives a signal to the dendrites gates open up on the membrane springing into action Threshold of excitation charge of a neuron reaches a certain level and the neuron becomes active action potential begins Action potential electrical signal that moves from the cell body down the axon to the axon terminals Action potential is allornone incoming signal is either sufficient or insufficient to reach the threshold of excitation Reuptake neurotransmitter is pumped back into the neuron that released it to clear the synapse Neurotransmitters and drugs Biological perspective focus on psychological causes of behavior say that psychological disorders are associated with imbalances in a neurotransmitter system Psychotropic medications drugs that treat psychiatric symptoms by restoring neurotransmitter balance Agonists chemicals that mimic a neurotransmitter at the receptor site and strengthen it s effect Antagonist blockimpede normal activity of the neurotransmitter at the receptor o Agonists and Antagonists are used as drugs to help psychiatric disorders 2 major subdivisions 9 Central Nervous System CNS Brain and spinal chord 9 Peripheral Nervous System PNS Connects CNS to the rest of the body gt PNS Made of nerves carrying messages from CNS to the rest of the body 2 major subdivisions 9 Somatic Nervous System Conscious and voluntary activities Relay of sensory motor information to and from CNS Consists of motor neurons and sensory neurons o Motor neurons carry instructions from CNS to muscles and are efferent bers efferent means quotmoving away fromquot o Sensory neurons carry sensory information to CNS and are afferent bers afferent means quotmoving towardquot 9 Autonomic Nervous System Controls internal organs and glands involuntary 2 subdivisions Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System 9 Sympathetic Nervous System prepares body for stressrelated activities ght or ight response to deal with dangers o Parasympathetic Nervous System returning body to routine daytoday operations Homeostasis equilibrium in body
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