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Marketplace > Kansas > Psychlogy > 104 > METHODS
GPA 3.5
psych 104
mustapha adijat

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study guide and detailed and self explanatory notes for Unit 3 (Methods) for Psychology 104.
psych 104
mustapha adijat
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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by EBENEZER METTLE-NUNOO on Tuesday October 7, 2014. The Reader belongs to 104 at Kansas taught by mustapha adijat in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see psych 104 in Psychlogy at Kansas.


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Date Created: 10/07/14
STUDY GUIDE METHODS 0 CONCEPTUAL VARIABLES 0 MEASURED VARIABLES 0 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS 0 THE FIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS 0 PROS AND CONS 0 EXPERMENTALGOLD STANDARD 0 CAUSAL INFERENCE 0 EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL VALIDITY 0 THINGS THAT AFFECTS THEM Conceptual variables 0 Conceptual variables describes a concept by relating the concept to other abstract concepts 0 scientifically defines a specific concept or variable so it can be systematically measured 0 Abstract ideas that form the basis of research hypothesis Some examples of conceptual variables are 0 Reading ability 0 Love 0 Sleep quality 0 Intelligence 0 Diversity 0 Dedication 0 Learning 0 Sef esteem Measured Variables 0 Measured variables are the variables consisting of numbers that represents the conceptual variables Some examples of measured variables are 0 Hours of sleep 0 Hours of exercise 0 Heart rate during exercise 0 Income level 0 Percentage of Africans in Lawrence The difference between a conceptual variable and a measured variable is that with the conceptual variable it is just defines a variable whiles the measured variable actually uses number representations to measure the conceptual variable For example a conceptual variable can be say reading ability and the measured variable would be the number of hours a person studies From the example we can infer that reading ability cannot be measured but the number of hours a person studies is easily measurable Operational Variable 0 Observable and measurable characteristics in actual practice 0 Set of validation tests used to determine the presence and quantity of a variable 0 Definitions that tell how to measure or observe a variable 0 In other words it shows how a conceptual variable is changed into a measured variable An example of an operational variable could be defining the weight of an object in terms of the numbers that appears on the scale when that object is placed on a weighing scale Or A person39s level of aggression on a 10 point scale THE FIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS 0 CASE STUDIES 0 SURVEYS 0 NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION 0 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH 0 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 1 CASE STUDIES 0 A descriptive research approach used to obtain a detailed analysis of a person or a small group of people or a group as a whole 0 Researches may use direct observations interviews tests examination of records collection of writing samples or documents as sources of information for a case study 2 SURVEY 0 A survey is a data collection tool used to collect information about individuals 0 Information could be collected using face to face interviews telephone interviews writtencomputer generated questionnaire 0 The individuals selected to participate in the research are referred to as the sample 3 NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION 0 Naturalistic observation is research based on observation of subjects behavior in their natural habitat and not interfering whiles conducting the research 0 Observer bias is when researchers alter the outcome of a study as a result of the observers own experiences expectations or knowledge about the purpose of the study 0 Observer effect occurs when the observer of the experiment interferes with the subjects of the experiment whiles observing them which can lead to a distorted picture of a natural phenomenon or invalid information from the research 4 CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH 0 Correlational research involves finding the relationship between two variables 0 A type of research used to figure out which variables are connected 0 Used for looking for an association between variables and not a difference TYPES OF CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH 0 Positive Correlation As variable A increases so does variable B 0 Negative Correlation When Variable A increases Variable B will decrease hence going in the opposite direction 0 No correlation occurs when there is no relationship between the two variables 5 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH 0 Involves performing research in a laboratory where one group is placed in an experimental groupone s being manipulated and the other in a placebo group or a nonmanipulated group 0 INDEPENDENT VARIABLE o The variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher o It is the presumed cause of the research o Causing variable that is created by the by the experimenter o DEPENDENT VARIABLE o The response that is measured o The presumed effect o A measured variable that is expected to be influenced by the experimental manipulation 0 QUASIEXPERIMENTAL DESIGN o Similar to an experimental design but lacks a random assignment o Compares two groups that already exist in the population THREATS TO THE VALIDITY OF RESEARCH There are two main threats to the validity of research 0 THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY o The extent to which the researcher can prove that only the independent variable caused changes in the dependent variable 0 EXPERIMENTER BIAS occurs when an experimenter treats the research participants in the various experimental conditions differently resulting in an invalid confirmation of the research hypothesis 0 DOUBLE BLND EXPERIMENT occurs when both the researcher and the research participants are clueless to the condition O CONFOUNDING VARIABLE An extraneous variable that affects the validity of an experiment 0 THREATS TO EXTERNAL VALIDITY 0 Ability to generalize our findings in an experiment to different times places and populations Extent to which the results of a research can be generalized beyond the specific way the original experiment was conducted GENERALIZATION The extent to which relationships among conceptual variables can be proven in a variety of measured variables


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